Implementing RSA for sensor nodes in smart cities View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-10

AUTHORS

Lirong Qiu, Zhe Liu, Geovandro C. C. F. Pereira, Hwajeong Seo

ABSTRACT

In smart city construction, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are normally deployed to collect and transmit real-time data. The nodes of the WSN are embedded facility that integrated sensors and data processing modules. For security and privacy concerns, cryptography methods are required for data protection. However, the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem, known as the the most popular and deployed public key algorithm, is still hardly implemented on embedded devices because of the intense computation required from its inherent arithmetic operations. Even though, different methods have being proposed for more efficient RSA implementations such as utilizing the Chinese remainder theorem, various modular exponentiation methods, and optimized modular arithmetic methods. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiplication for long integers on the sensor nodes equipped with 16-bit microcontrollers. Combined with this efficient multiplication, we obtain a faster Montgomery multiplication. The combined optimized Montgomery multiplication, the Chinese remainder theorem, and the m-ary exponentiation method allowed for execution times of less than 44.6 × 106 clock cycles for RSA decryption, a new speed record for the RSA implementation on MSP430 microcontrollers. More... »

PAGES

807-813

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2004. Comparing Elliptic Curve Cryptography and RSA on 8-bit CPUs in CRYPTOGRAPHIC HARDWARE AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS - CHES 2004
  • 2006. Efficient Implementation of Public Key Cryptosystems on Mote Sensors (Short Paper) in INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY
  • 2015. Full-Size High-Security ECC Implementation on MSP430 Microcontrollers in PROGRESS IN CRYPTOLOGY - LATINCRYPT 2014
  • 2014. New Speed Records for Montgomery Modular Multiplication on 8-Bit AVR Microcontrollers in PROGRESS IN CRYPTOLOGY – AFRICACRYPT 2014
  • 2014. Smart and Digital City: A Systematic Literature Review in SMART CITY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090353257


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0804", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Data Format", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/08", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Information and Computing Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Minzu University of China", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411077.4", 
              "name": [
                "Information Engineering School, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Qiu", 
            "givenName": "Lirong", 
            "id": "sg:person.010242201146.93", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010242201146.93"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Luxembourg", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16008.3f", 
              "name": [
                "SnT, University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre 6, Avenue de la Fonte, L-4364, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Liu", 
            "givenName": "Zhe", 
            "id": "sg:person.013144776623.84", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013144776623.84"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Waterloo", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "C. F. Pereira", 
            "givenName": "Geovandro C.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07706367637.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07706367637.74"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Hansung University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.444079.a", 
              "name": [
                "Hansung University, 389 Samseondong 2(i)-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, South Korea"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Seo", 
            "givenName": "Hwajeong", 
            "id": "sg:person.015101423711.26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015101423711.26"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11935308_37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000175039", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11935308_37"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11935308_37", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000175039", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11935308_37"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06160-3_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001268644", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06160-3_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-16295-9_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007958487", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16295-9_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008174972", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008174972", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/047168659x.ch2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017887802"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06734-6_14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038724880", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06734-6_14"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/13604810802479126", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040551980"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1985-0777282-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041482767"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1389-1286(01)00302-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048798332"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1987-0866113-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050650230"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1049/el:19820617", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056767588"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tdsc.2016.2577022", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061585617"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tifs.2015.2491261", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061630681"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1147/sj.294.0526", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063184115"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1504/ijsn.2006.011772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067492151"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/ipsn.2008.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093251515"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2017-10", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2017-10-01", 
        "description": "In smart city construction, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are normally deployed to collect and transmit real-time data. The nodes of the WSN are embedded facility that integrated sensors and data processing modules. For security and privacy concerns, cryptography methods are required for data protection. However, the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem, known as the the most popular and deployed public key algorithm, is still hardly implemented on embedded devices because of the intense computation required from its inherent arithmetic operations. Even though, different methods have being proposed for more efficient RSA implementations such as utilizing the Chinese remainder theorem, various modular exponentiation methods, and optimized modular arithmetic methods. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiplication for long integers on the sensor nodes equipped with 16-bit microcontrollers. Combined with this efficient multiplication, we obtain a faster Montgomery multiplication. The combined optimized Montgomery multiplication, the Chinese remainder theorem, and the m-ary exponentiation method allowed for execution times of less than 44.6 \u00d7 106 clock cycles for RSA decryption, a new speed record for the RSA implementation on MSP430 microcontrollers.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1049837", 
            "issn": [
              "1617-4909", 
              "1617-4917"
            ], 
            "name": "Personal and Ubiquitous Computing", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "5", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "21"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Implementing RSA for sensor nodes in smart cities", 
        "pagination": "807-813", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "064e17eeb3ae5b520d467909600cd634614959e02b51e2df83d8f26b299dd516"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1090353257"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090353257"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T12:23", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000362_0000000362/records_87088_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00779-017-1044-y"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    144 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      43 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y schema:about anzsrc-for:08
    2 anzsrc-for:0804
    3 schema:author N3f841cb627b9471191ec8fd43d582a9d
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/11935308_37
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06160-3_2
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06734-6_14
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-16295-9_2
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9
    9 https://doi.org/10.1002/047168659x.ch2
    10 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1389-1286(01)00302-4
    11 https://doi.org/10.1049/el:19820617
    12 https://doi.org/10.1080/13604810802479126
    13 https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1985-0777282-x
    14 https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1987-0866113-7
    15 https://doi.org/10.1109/ipsn.2008.47
    16 https://doi.org/10.1109/tdsc.2016.2577022
    17 https://doi.org/10.1109/tifs.2015.2491261
    18 https://doi.org/10.1147/sj.294.0526
    19 https://doi.org/10.1504/ijsn.2006.011772
    20 schema:datePublished 2017-10
    21 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-10-01
    22 schema:description In smart city construction, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are normally deployed to collect and transmit real-time data. The nodes of the WSN are embedded facility that integrated sensors and data processing modules. For security and privacy concerns, cryptography methods are required for data protection. However, the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem, known as the the most popular and deployed public key algorithm, is still hardly implemented on embedded devices because of the intense computation required from its inherent arithmetic operations. Even though, different methods have being proposed for more efficient RSA implementations such as utilizing the Chinese remainder theorem, various modular exponentiation methods, and optimized modular arithmetic methods. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiplication for long integers on the sensor nodes equipped with 16-bit microcontrollers. Combined with this efficient multiplication, we obtain a faster Montgomery multiplication. The combined optimized Montgomery multiplication, the Chinese remainder theorem, and the m-ary exponentiation method allowed for execution times of less than 44.6 × 106 clock cycles for RSA decryption, a new speed record for the RSA implementation on MSP430 microcontrollers.
    23 schema:genre research_article
    24 schema:inLanguage en
    25 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    26 schema:isPartOf N76d2d28ae35b4e63a92126f7e78c3b82
    27 N81f4814476fc4e8dab827e7f3bf90c71
    28 sg:journal.1049837
    29 schema:name Implementing RSA for sensor nodes in smart cities
    30 schema:pagination 807-813
    31 schema:productId N0210a8acf74f4d4eb51e176e8bd60a2a
    32 N8f5a6a0079b446a8996951c87af39dc2
    33 Nfbe28f8e2bb744199e2308af4dfee2ed
    34 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090353257
    35 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y
    36 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T12:23
    37 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    38 schema:sdPublisher Ne2b9f9a284b4449598b57443f19419dd
    39 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00779-017-1044-y
    40 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    41 sgo:sdDataset articles
    42 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    43 N0210a8acf74f4d4eb51e176e8bd60a2a schema:name doi
    44 schema:value 10.1007/s00779-017-1044-y
    45 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    46 N2d88cc08e90a43b3af79fd3fc2e128ea rdf:first sg:person.07706367637.74
    47 rdf:rest N6569e8fa9acd4b5ab8e1b7cb8991ac7b
    48 N3f841cb627b9471191ec8fd43d582a9d rdf:first sg:person.010242201146.93
    49 rdf:rest N52a281d859984786b912e67120b741da
    50 N52a281d859984786b912e67120b741da rdf:first sg:person.013144776623.84
    51 rdf:rest N2d88cc08e90a43b3af79fd3fc2e128ea
    52 N6569e8fa9acd4b5ab8e1b7cb8991ac7b rdf:first sg:person.015101423711.26
    53 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    54 N76d2d28ae35b4e63a92126f7e78c3b82 schema:issueNumber 5
    55 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    56 N81f4814476fc4e8dab827e7f3bf90c71 schema:volumeNumber 21
    57 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    58 N8f5a6a0079b446a8996951c87af39dc2 schema:name readcube_id
    59 schema:value 064e17eeb3ae5b520d467909600cd634614959e02b51e2df83d8f26b299dd516
    60 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    61 Ne2b9f9a284b4449598b57443f19419dd schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    62 rdf:type schema:Organization
    63 Nfbe28f8e2bb744199e2308af4dfee2ed schema:name dimensions_id
    64 schema:value pub.1090353257
    65 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    66 anzsrc-for:08 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    67 schema:name Information and Computing Sciences
    68 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    69 anzsrc-for:0804 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    70 schema:name Data Format
    71 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    72 sg:journal.1049837 schema:issn 1617-4909
    73 1617-4917
    74 schema:name Personal and Ubiquitous Computing
    75 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    76 sg:person.010242201146.93 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411077.4
    77 schema:familyName Qiu
    78 schema:givenName Lirong
    79 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010242201146.93
    80 rdf:type schema:Person
    81 sg:person.013144776623.84 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16008.3f
    82 schema:familyName Liu
    83 schema:givenName Zhe
    84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013144776623.84
    85 rdf:type schema:Person
    86 sg:person.015101423711.26 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.444079.a
    87 schema:familyName Seo
    88 schema:givenName Hwajeong
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015101423711.26
    90 rdf:type schema:Person
    91 sg:person.07706367637.74 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d
    92 schema:familyName C. F. Pereira
    93 schema:givenName Geovandro C.
    94 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07706367637.74
    95 rdf:type schema:Person
    96 sg:pub.10.1007/11935308_37 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000175039
    97 https://doi.org/10.1007/11935308_37
    98 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    99 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06160-3_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001268644
    100 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06160-3_2
    101 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    102 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-06734-6_14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038724880
    103 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-06734-6_14
    104 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    105 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-16295-9_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007958487
    106 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16295-9_2
    107 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    108 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008174972
    109 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-28632-5_9
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://doi.org/10.1002/047168659x.ch2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017887802
    112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    113 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1389-1286(01)00302-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048798332
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 https://doi.org/10.1049/el:19820617 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056767588
    116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    117 https://doi.org/10.1080/13604810802479126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040551980
    118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    119 https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1985-0777282-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041482767
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 https://doi.org/10.1090/s0025-5718-1987-0866113-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050650230
    122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    123 https://doi.org/10.1109/ipsn.2008.47 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093251515
    124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    125 https://doi.org/10.1109/tdsc.2016.2577022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061585617
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 https://doi.org/10.1109/tifs.2015.2491261 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061630681
    128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    129 https://doi.org/10.1147/sj.294.0526 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063184115
    130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    131 https://doi.org/10.1504/ijsn.2006.011772 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1067492151
    132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    133 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16008.3f schema:alternateName University of Luxembourg
    134 schema:name SnT, University of Luxembourg, Maison du Nombre 6, Avenue de la Fonte, L-4364, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
    135 rdf:type schema:Organization
    136 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411077.4 schema:alternateName Minzu University of China
    137 schema:name Information Engineering School, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China
    138 rdf:type schema:Organization
    139 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.444079.a schema:alternateName Hansung University
    140 schema:name Hansung University, 389 Samseondong 2(i)-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, South Korea
    141 rdf:type schema:Organization
    142 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.46078.3d schema:alternateName University of Waterloo
    143 schema:name Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
    144 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...