Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2011-03-22

AUTHORS

Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Andrew Shao, Toshitada Inoue, Richard B. Kreider

ABSTRACT

Creatine has become one of the most popular dietary supplements in the sports nutrition market. The form of creatine that has been most extensively studied and commonly used in dietary supplements is creatine monohydrate (CM). Studies have consistently indicated that CM supplementation increases muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations by approximately 15–40%, enhances anaerobic exercise capacity, and increases training volume leading to greater gains in strength, power, and muscle mass. A number of potential therapeutic benefits have also been suggested in various clinical populations. Studies have indicated that CM is not degraded during normal digestion and that nearly 99% of orally ingested CM is either taken up by muscle or excreted in urine. Further, no medically significant side effects have been reported in literature. Nevertheless, supplement manufacturers have continually introduced newer forms of creatine into the marketplace. These newer forms have been purported to have better physical and chemical properties, bioavailability, efficacy, and/or safety profiles than CM. However, there is little to no evidence that any of the newer forms of creatine are more effective and/or safer than CM whether ingested alone and/or in combination with other nutrients. In addition, whereas the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of CM is clearly defined in almost all global markets; the safety, efficacy, and regulatory status of other forms of creatine present in today’s marketplace as a dietary or food supplement is less clear. More... »

PAGES

1369-1383

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2007-07-13. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2007-09-13. Kinetics of creatine ingested as a food ingredient in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2009-01-06. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2008-09-17. The effect of Russian Tarragon (artemisia dracunculus L.) on the plasma creatine concentration with creatine monohydrate administration in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2007-07-13. Comparison of new forms of creatine in raising plasma creatine levels in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2008-01-03. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2003-02. Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes in MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 2010-01-05. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2003-06. Evaluation of the stability of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations in AAPS PHARMSCITECH
  • 2003-05. Pharmacokinetics of the Dietary Supplement Creatine in CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS
  • 2003-02. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations in MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 2009-01-06. The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • 2007-07-13. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise in JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS NUTRITION
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00726-011-0874-6

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-011-0874-6

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035710911

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21424716


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