Surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors: the role of intraoperative (neurophysiological) monitoring View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2007-07-26

AUTHORS

Francesco Sala, Albino Bricolo, Franco Faccioli, Paola Lanteri, Massimo Gerosa

ABSTRACT

In spite of advancements in neuro-imaging and microsurgical techniques, surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCT) remains a challenging task. The rationale for using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) is in keeping with the goal of maximizing tumor resection and minimizing neurological morbidity. For many years, before the advent of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), only somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were monitored. However, SEPs are not aimed to reflect the functional integrity of motor pathways and, nowadays, the combined used of SEPs and MEPs in ISCT surgery is almost mandatory because of the possibility to selectively injury either the somatosensory or the motor pathways. This paper is aimed to review our perspective in the field of IOM during ISCT surgery and to discuss it in the light of other intraoperative neurophysiologic strategies that have recently appeared in the literature with regards to ISCT surgery. Besides standard cortical SEP monitoring after peripheral stimulation, both muscle (mMEPs) and epidural MEPs (D-wave) are monitored after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). Given the dorsal approach to the spinal cord, SEPs must be monitored continuously during the incision of the dorsal midline. When the surgeon starts to work on the cleavage plane between tumor and spinal cord, attention must be paid to MEPs. During tumor removal, we alternatively monitor D-wave and mMEPs, sustaining the stimulation during the most critical steps of the procedure. D-waves, obtained through a single pulse TES technique, allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the functional integrity of the cortico-spinal tracts and represent the strongest predictor of motor outcome. Whenever evoked potentials deteriorate, temporarily stop surgery, warm saline irrigation and improved blood perfusion have proved useful for promoting recovery, Most of intraoperative neurophysiological derangements are reversible and therefore IOM is able to prevent more than merely predict neurological injury. In our opinion combining mMEPs and D-wave monitoring, when available, is the gold standard for ISCT surgery because it supports a more aggressive surgery in the attempt to achieve a complete tumor removal. If quantitative (threshold or waveform dependent) mMEPs criteria only are used to stop surgery, this likely impacts unfavorably on the rate of tumor removal. More... »

PAGES

130-139

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1991. Recording of Myogenic Motor Evoked Potentials (mMEP) Under General Anesthesia in INTRAOPERATIVE NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC MONITORING IN NEUROSURGERY
  • 1980-05. Stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intact human subject in NATURE
  • 1998. Intraoperative neurophysiology of the corticospinal tract in SPINAL CORD MONITORING
  • 2004. Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring for Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Surgery in ADVANCES AND TECHNICAL STANDARDS IN NEUROSURGERY
  • 1999-01. Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors Critical review of the literature in CHILD'S NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 1994. Anaesthesia and the motor evoked potential in HANDBOOK OF SPINAL CORD MONITORING
  • 1999. Neuromonitoring in NONE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00586-007-0423-x

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-007-0423-x

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042309358

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17653776


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