Definitions, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2007-01-30

AUTHORS

Yasutoshi Kimura, Tadahiro Takada, Yoshifumi Kawarada, Yuji Nimura, Koichi Hirata, Miho Sekimoto, Masahiro Yoshida, Toshihiko Mayumi, Keita Wada, Fumihiko Miura, Hideki Yasuda, Yuichi Yamashita, Masato Nagino, Masahiko Hirota, Atsushi Tanaka, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Steven M. Strasberg, Thomas R. Gadacz

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the definitions, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Acute cholangitis and cholecystitis mostly originate from stones in the bile ducts and gallbladder. Acute cholecystitis also has other causes, such as ischemia; chemicals that enter biliary secretions; motility disorders associated with drugs; infections with microorganisms, protozoa, and parasites; collagen disease; and allergic reactions. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is associated with a recent operation, trauma, burns, multisystem organ failure, and parenteral nutrition. Factors associated with the onset of cholelithiasis include obesity, age, and drugs such as oral contraceptives. The reported mortality of less than 10% for acute cholecystitis gives an impression that it is not a fatal disease, except for the elderly and/or patients with acalculous disease. However, there are reports of high mortality for cholangitis, although the mortality differs greatly depending on the year of the report and the severity of the disease. Even reports published in and after the 1980s indicate high mortality, ranging from 10% to 30% in the patients, with multiorgan failure as a major cause of death. Because many of the reports on acute cholecystitis and cholangitis use different standards, comparisons are difficult. Variations in treatment and risk factors influencing the mortality rates indicate the necessity for standardized diagnostic, treatment, and severity assessment criteria. More... »

PAGES

15-26

Journal

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00534-006-1152-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00534-006-1152-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046079736

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17252293


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22 schema:description This article discusses the definitions, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Acute cholangitis and cholecystitis mostly originate from stones in the bile ducts and gallbladder. Acute cholecystitis also has other causes, such as ischemia; chemicals that enter biliary secretions; motility disorders associated with drugs; infections with microorganisms, protozoa, and parasites; collagen disease; and allergic reactions. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is associated with a recent operation, trauma, burns, multisystem organ failure, and parenteral nutrition. Factors associated with the onset of cholelithiasis include obesity, age, and drugs such as oral contraceptives. The reported mortality of less than 10% for acute cholecystitis gives an impression that it is not a fatal disease, except for the elderly and/or patients with acalculous disease. However, there are reports of high mortality for cholangitis, although the mortality differs greatly depending on the year of the report and the severity of the disease. Even reports published in and after the 1980s indicate high mortality, ranging from 10% to 30% in the patients, with multiorgan failure as a major cause of death. Because many of the reports on acute cholecystitis and cholangitis use different standards, comparisons are difficult. Variations in treatment and risk factors influencing the mortality rates indicate the necessity for standardized diagnostic, treatment, and severity assessment criteria.
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31 acalculous disease
32 acute acalculous cholecystitis
33 acute cholangitis
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35 age
36 allergic reactions
37 article
38 assessment criteria
39 bile duct
40 biliary secretion
41 burns
42 cause
43 chemicals
44 cholangitis
45 cholecystitis
46 cholelithiasis
47 collagen diseases
48 comparison
49 contraceptives
50 criteria
51 death
52 definition
53 different standards
54 disease
55 disorders
56 drugs
57 duct
58 epidemiology
59 factors
60 failure
61 fatal disease
62 gallbladder
63 guidelines
64 high mortality
65 impression
66 infection
67 ischemia
68 major cause
69 microorganisms
70 mortality
71 mortality rate
72 motility disorders
73 multiorgan failure
74 multisystem organ failure
75 necessity
76 nutrition
77 obesity
78 onset
79 onset of cholelithiasis
80 operation
81 oral contraceptives
82 organ failure
83 parasites
84 parenteral nutrition
85 pathophysiology
86 patients
87 protozoa
88 rate
89 reaction
90 recent operation
91 report
92 risk factors
93 secretion
94 severity
95 severity assessment criteria
96 standards
97 stones
98 trauma
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