Contrasting treeline dynamics of pine and birch in response to climate warming in the Karakoram View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-08-18

AUTHORS

Munawar Ali, Shalik Ram Sigdel, Xiangyu Zheng, Fayaz Asad, Ru Huang, Haifeng Zhu, Sher Muhammad, Iqtidar Hussain, Saulat Hussain, J. Julio Camarero, Eryuan Liang

ABSTRACT

Key messagePine benefited from a warming climate with increasing recruitment and upslope shifts of alpine treeline but birch treelines were mostly static highlighting the influence of other confounding, local factors.AbstractAlpine treeline is considered as a sensitive indicator to climate change. Given that low temperature is a primary constraint of treeline dynamics, they are expected to shift upslope in response to climate warming. The Karakoram, under westerly-dominated climate, has experienced significant warming since the mid-nineteenth century. However, in comparison to monsoon-dominated wetter areas, little is known how alpine treelines have responded to rising temperatures in westerly-dominated dry areas, such as the Karakoram. To test if climate warming triggered upslope shift of alpine treelines in the Karakoram, we compared the recent dynamics of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) and Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) treeline populations. We expected a higher responsiveness of pine recruitment to temperature as compared with birch due to the higher drought-tolerance of pine species. Tree mapping and dendrochronological methods were used to determine stand age structure, and to reconstruct spatiotemporal treeline dynamics during the past 150 years. The decadal recruitment rate of pine was positively correlated with summer and winter temperatures, whereas the birch recruitment was negatively correlated. Accordingly, pine treelines showed significant upslope shifts in two out of three plots, whilst two birch treelines remained stable in the two studied plots. Such different treeline shift rates between blue pine and birch species agree with their divergent recruitment responses to climate warming. Thus, projected warming in the Karakoram will differently impact treelines depending on species-specific responses with pine showing a more dynamic and rapid upward treeline advancement and birch showing less rapid responses. However, we should consider other non-climatic factors such as anthropogenic disturbances for better understanding treeline dynamics in the Karakoram. More... »

PAGES

1-10

References to SciGraph publications

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    23 schema:description Key messagePine benefited from a warming climate with increasing recruitment and upslope shifts of alpine treeline but birch treelines were mostly static highlighting the influence of other confounding, local factors.AbstractAlpine treeline is considered as a sensitive indicator to climate change. Given that low temperature is a primary constraint of treeline dynamics, they are expected to shift upslope in response to climate warming. The Karakoram, under westerly-dominated climate, has experienced significant warming since the mid-nineteenth century. However, in comparison to monsoon-dominated wetter areas, little is known how alpine treelines have responded to rising temperatures in westerly-dominated dry areas, such as the Karakoram. To test if climate warming triggered upslope shift of alpine treelines in the Karakoram, we compared the recent dynamics of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) and Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) treeline populations. We expected a higher responsiveness of pine recruitment to temperature as compared with birch due to the higher drought-tolerance of pine species. Tree mapping and dendrochronological methods were used to determine stand age structure, and to reconstruct spatiotemporal treeline dynamics during the past 150 years. The decadal recruitment rate of pine was positively correlated with summer and winter temperatures, whereas the birch recruitment was negatively correlated. Accordingly, pine treelines showed significant upslope shifts in two out of three plots, whilst two birch treelines remained stable in the two studied plots. Such different treeline shift rates between blue pine and birch species agree with their divergent recruitment responses to climate warming. Thus, projected warming in the Karakoram will differently impact treelines depending on species-specific responses with pine showing a more dynamic and rapid upward treeline advancement and birch showing less rapid responses. However, we should consider other non-climatic factors such as anthropogenic disturbances for better understanding treeline dynamics in the Karakoram.
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    28 advancement
    29 age structure
    30 alpine treeline
    31 anthropogenic disturbance
    32 area
    33 birch
    34 birch species
    35 blue pine
    36 century
    37 changes
    38 climate
    39 comparison
    40 confounding
    41 constraints
    42 dendrochronological methods
    43 disturbances
    44 dry areas
    45 dynamics
    46 factors
    47 high responsiveness
    48 indicators
    49 influence
    50 local factors
    51 low temperature
    52 mapping
    53 method
    54 mid-nineteenth century
    55 non-climatic factors
    56 pine
    57 pine recruitment
    58 pine species
    59 plots
    60 population
    61 primary constraint
    62 rapid response
    63 rate
    64 recent dynamics
    65 recruitment
    66 recruitment rates
    67 recruitment response
    68 response
    69 responsiveness
    70 sensitive indicator
    71 shift
    72 shift rate
    73 significant warming
    74 species
    75 species-specific responses
    76 structure
    77 studied plots
    78 summer
    79 temperature
    80 tree mapping
    81 treeline
    82 treeline dynamics
    83 treeline populations
    84 upslope
    85 upslope shifts
    86 warming
    87 warming climate
    88 wetter areas
    89 winter temperatures
    90 years
    91 schema:name Contrasting treeline dynamics of pine and birch in response to climate warming in the Karakoram
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