Heartwood formation progresses basipetally over years or decades in each conically shaped annual growth layer of Cryptomeria japonica stems View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-07-27

AUTHORS

Satoshi Nagai, Kenichi Yazaki, Yasuhiro Utsumi

ABSTRACT

Key messageCryptomeria japonica stems included successive annual growth layers with sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood acropetally. Parenchyma cell death and heartwood formation in each layer progress basipetally over years or decades.AbstractIn the secondary xylem of trees, heartwood formation is a physiological process accompanied by parenchyma cell death in the inner sapwood; however, the trigger of this cell death remains unclear. Direct visualization of living or dead parenchyma cells within stems is difficult; alternatively, it is possible to analyze the distribution of sapwood, which contains living parenchyma cells within stems. By employing X-ray and surface images of 85 cross-sectional disks obtained from the entire height of five mature Cryptomeria japonica stems, the number of annual rings in, and the radial width of, each sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood were measured and axially reconstructed. The effect of stem height on those numbers and widths was analyzed by fitting linear mixed-effects models. The axial distribution of sapwood, intermediate wood, or heartwood in each conically shaped annual growth layer of the whole stems was also reconstructed. The numbers of annual growth layers from the cambium to the intermediate wood and heartwood decreased with stem height. In contrast, radial distances from the cambium to the intermediate wood and heartwood were constant regardless of stem height. All stems included several successive tri-state annual growth layers, with sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood acropetally; heartwood formation in each layer progressed basipetally over years or decades. These results confirm that parenchyma cell aging after their formation in the cambium is not the determinant of their death or heartwood formation. Instead, the radial distance affects the death of parenchyma cells and heartwood formation. More... »

PAGES

1-11

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2009-06-20. Cellular level observation of water loss and the refilling of tracheids in the xylem of Cryptomeria japonica during heartwood formation in TREES
  • 2013-12-02. Freeze Stabilization and Cryopreparation Technique for Visualizing the Water Distribution in Woody Tissues by X-Ray Imaging and Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy in ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
  • 1995-07. Detection and features of wetwood in Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata in TREES
  • 2019-02-09. Water potential gradient between sapwood and heartwood as a driving force in water accumulation in wetwood in conifers in WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • 2008-04-17. Differences in patterns of cell death between ray parenchyma cells and ray tracheids in the conifers Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida in TREES
  • 1994-11. Formation and vertical distribution of sapwood and heartwood in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don in TREES
  • 2011-12-21. Radial movement of sapwood-injected rubidium into heartwood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeriajaponica) in the growing period in JOURNAL OF WOOD SCIENCE
  • 2005-08-23. Gas diffusion through wood: implications for oxygen supply in TREES
  • 1968-03. On the formation of facultatively colored heartwood in Beilschmiedia tawa in WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • 1987. Heartwood and Tree Exudates in NONE
  • 2011-10-01. Application of activable tracers to investigate radial movement of minerals in the stem of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) in JOURNAL OF WOOD SCIENCE
  • 2003-01-21. Different pathways of the oxygen supply in the sapwood of young Olea europaea trees in PLANTA
  • 2006-04-07. Potassium distribution in black heartwood of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) I: Localization in axial parenchyma cells in JOURNAL OF WOOD SCIENCE
  • 2016-02-19. Agatharesinol biosynthesis-related changes of ray parenchyma in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica during cell death in PLANTA
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00468-022-02333-w

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