Spatial patterns of leaf shape variation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-10-16

AUTHORS

Srđan Stojnić, Vincenzo Viscosi, Milena Marković, Mladen Ivanković, Saša Orlović, Roberto Tognetti, Claudia Cocozza, Verica Vasić, Anna Loy

ABSTRACT

Key messageLeaf shape in European beech provenances varies geographically, with narrower and longer lamina observed in southern provenances, indicating a direct selection favoring leaf shape that likely safeguards trees performances under less favorable growing conditions.AbstractSpatial and environmental patterns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf size and shape variations were studied using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. The study involved eight provenances originating from three biogeographic regions (i.e., Alpine, Continental, and Pannonian), spanning across six European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania and Serbia). All specimens were cultivated in a common garden experiment. The symmetric component of leaf shape variation was analyzed by Procrustes ANOVA and multi‐variate analyses [principal component analysis and canonical variate analysis (CVA)], whereas MANOVA was used to examine asymmetry. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was used to assess the covariation between leaf shape and size, and geographical position and environmental variables at the sites of provenance origin, respectively. A highly observed phenotypic variation for the shape and size of leaf both within and among provenances, indicates a strong local adaptation of provenances within the species natural range. CVA revealed the existence of two clusters of provenances based on the leaf shape, i.e., the first group included provenances originating from Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe, while the second group consisted of two Romanian provenances and the northernmost provenance from Germany. Likewise, PLS evidenced that leaf shape was spatially structured along latitudinal (− 0.64) and longitudinal (0.60) gradients, with southern provenances having longer and narrower (ovate) lamina compared to the northern ones. In contrast, no correlation was found between centroid size and spatial and environmental variables. Results suggest the presence of direct selection favoring a leaf shape that likely safeguards trees from heat and water loses under less favorable growing conditions. More... »

PAGES

497-511

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    61 gradient
    62 group
    63 heat
    64 landmark-based geometric morphometrics
    65 leaf shape
    66 leaf shape variation
    67 leaf size
    68 least squares analysis
    69 leaves
    70 local adaptation
    71 morphometrics
    72 multi-variate analysis
    73 natural range
    74 northern ones
    75 northernmost provenance
    76 observed phenotypic variation
    77 one
    78 origin
    79 partial least squares analysis
    80 patterns
    81 performance
    82 phenotypic variation
    83 position
    84 presence
    85 provenance
    86 provenance origin
    87 range
    88 region
    89 results
    90 safeguards
    91 second group
    92 selection
    93 shape
    94 shape variation
    95 sites
    96 size
    97 size of leaves
    98 southern provenances
    99 spatial patterns
    100 species' natural range
    101 specimens
    102 squares analysis
    103 strong local adaptation
    104 study
    105 symmetric component
    106 trees
    107 variables
    108 variation
    109 water
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