Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1998-04

AUTHORS

B. V. MacFadyen, R. Vecchio, A. E. Ricardo, C. R. Mathis

ABSTRACT

Background: Forty series reporting experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States from 1989 to 1995 were reviewed. A total of 114,005 cases were analyzed and 561 major bile duct injuries (0.50%) and 401 bile leaks from the cystic duct or liver bed (0.38%) were recorded. Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was attempted in 41.5% of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies and was successful in 82.7%. In major bile duct injuries, the common bile duct/common hepatic duct were the most frequently injured (61.1%) and only 1.4% of the patients had complete transection.Methods: When reported, most of the bile duct injuries were managed surgically with a biliary-enteric anastomosis (41.8%) or via laparotomy and t-tube or stent placement (27.5%). The long-term success rate could not be determined because of the small number of series reporting this information. The management for bile leaks usually consisted of a drainage procedure (55.3%) performed endoscopically, percutaneously, or operatively.Results: The morbidity for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, excluding bile duct injuries or leaks, was 5.4% and the overall mortality was 0.06%. It was also noted that the conversion rate to an open procedure was 2.16%.Conclusions: It is concluded based on this review of laparoscopic cholecystectomies that the morbidity and mortality rates are similar to open surgery. In addition, the rate of bile duct injuries and leaks is higher than in open cholecystectomy. Furthermore, bile duct injuries can be minimized by lateral retraction of the gallbladder neck and careful dissection of Calot’s triangle, the cystic duct–gallbladder junction, and the cystic duct–common bile duct junction. More... »

PAGES

315-321

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s004649900661

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004649900661

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053548209

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9543520


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bile Ducts", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cholangiography", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Common Bile Duct", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hepatic Duct, Common", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "United States", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.267308.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "MacFadyen", 
        "givenName": "B. V.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0616727573.73", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616727573.73"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Via Carnazza n. 2, 95030 Tremestieri Etneo, Italy, Italy", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.8158.4", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Via Carnazza n. 2, 95030 Tremestieri Etneo, Italy, Italy"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Vecchio", 
        "givenName": "R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0701061537.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701061537.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.267308.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Ricardo", 
        "givenName": "A. E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01067261645.89", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01067261645.89"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.267308.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Mathis", 
        "givenName": "C. R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01154334230.14", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01154334230.14"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02210874", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011590994", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02210874"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02653211", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044059946", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02653211"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00725942", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048543376", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00725942"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00316827", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010910144", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00316827"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1998-04", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1998-04-01", 
    "description": "Background: Forty series reporting experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States from 1989 to 1995 were reviewed. A total of 114,005 cases were analyzed and 561 major bile duct injuries (0.50%) and 401 bile leaks from the cystic duct or liver bed (0.38%) were recorded. Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was attempted in 41.5% of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies and was successful in 82.7%. In major bile duct injuries, the common bile duct/common hepatic duct were the most frequently injured (61.1%) and only 1.4% of the patients had complete transection.Methods: When reported, most of the bile duct injuries were managed surgically with a biliary-enteric anastomosis (41.8%) or via laparotomy and t-tube or stent placement (27.5%). The long-term success rate could not be determined because of the small number of series reporting this information. The management for bile leaks usually consisted of a drainage procedure (55.3%) performed endoscopically, percutaneously, or operatively.Results: The morbidity for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, excluding bile duct injuries or leaks, was 5.4% and the overall mortality was 0.06%. It was also noted that the conversion rate to an open procedure was 2.16%.Conclusions: It is concluded based on this review of laparoscopic cholecystectomies that the morbidity and mortality rates are similar to open surgery. In addition, the rate of bile duct injuries and leaks is higher than in open cholecystectomy. Furthermore, bile duct injuries can be minimized by lateral retraction of the gallbladder neck and careful dissection of Calot\u2019s triangle, the cystic duct\u2013gallbladder junction, and the cystic duct\u2013common bile duct junction.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s004649900661", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1098220", 
        "issn": [
          "0930-2794", 
          "1432-2218"
        ], 
        "name": "Surgical Endoscopy", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "12"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "bile duct injury", 
      "major bile duct injury", 
      "duct injury", 
      "laparoscopic cholecystectomy", 
      "bile leak", 
      "intraoperative cholangiography", 
      "cystic duct-common bile duct junction", 
      "long-term success rate", 
      "common hepatic duct", 
      "biliary-enteric anastomosis", 
      "open cholecystectomy", 
      "gallbladder neck", 
      "hepatic duct", 
      "overall mortality", 
      "liver bed", 
      "Calot's triangle", 
      "cystic duct", 
      "open surgery", 
      "complete transection", 
      "stent placement", 
      "drainage procedures", 
      "open procedure", 
      "lateral retraction", 
      "cholecystectomy", 
      "T-tube", 
      "mortality rate", 
      "careful dissection", 
      "duct junction", 
      "injury", 
      "success rate", 
      "morbidity", 
      "leak", 
      "duct", 
      "reporting experience", 
      "laparotomy", 
      "cholangiography", 
      "patients", 
      "transection", 
      "surgery", 
      "anastomosis", 
      "mortality", 
      "neck", 
      "dissection", 
      "rate", 
      "conversion rate", 
      "United States", 
      "total", 
      "small number", 
      "retraction", 
      "procedure", 
      "review", 
      "placement", 
      "junction", 
      "management", 
      "cases", 
      "experience", 
      "addition", 
      "number", 
      "bed", 
      "series", 
      "information", 
      "state", 
      "triangle"
    ], 
    "name": "Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy", 
    "pagination": "315-321", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1053548209"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s004649900661"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9543520"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004649900661", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053548209"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-09-02T15:49", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220902/entities/gbq_results/article/article_306.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s004649900661"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s004649900661'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s004649900661'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s004649900661'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s004649900661'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

192 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      100 URIs      88 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s004649900661 schema:about N1d982faeb2c94dee89540fed1b3f1dd7
2 N30290294d16f49d6bbad5f404562d509
3 N59c9c4e0f7284300a593b5db22193a45
4 N5f3b44f6927b4bf7879de3c6aad8371e
5 Nc15073dd23f94989b18550f1ae12c6b6
6 Nc85fe7d8fc1a4fc09ef63d57bf83b940
7 Nfbb9c4f8f007453abd533c92f75ed9eb
8 anzsrc-for:11
9 anzsrc-for:1103
10 schema:author N21332a9a4cf84ce78b90726d6ef18371
11 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00316827
12 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00725942
13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02210874
14 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02653211
15 schema:datePublished 1998-04
16 schema:datePublishedReg 1998-04-01
17 schema:description Background: Forty series reporting experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States from 1989 to 1995 were reviewed. A total of 114,005 cases were analyzed and 561 major bile duct injuries (0.50%) and 401 bile leaks from the cystic duct or liver bed (0.38%) were recorded. Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was attempted in 41.5% of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies and was successful in 82.7%. In major bile duct injuries, the common bile duct/common hepatic duct were the most frequently injured (61.1%) and only 1.4% of the patients had complete transection.Methods: When reported, most of the bile duct injuries were managed surgically with a biliary-enteric anastomosis (41.8%) or via laparotomy and t-tube or stent placement (27.5%). The long-term success rate could not be determined because of the small number of series reporting this information. The management for bile leaks usually consisted of a drainage procedure (55.3%) performed endoscopically, percutaneously, or operatively.Results: The morbidity for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, excluding bile duct injuries or leaks, was 5.4% and the overall mortality was 0.06%. It was also noted that the conversion rate to an open procedure was 2.16%.Conclusions: It is concluded based on this review of laparoscopic cholecystectomies that the morbidity and mortality rates are similar to open surgery. In addition, the rate of bile duct injuries and leaks is higher than in open cholecystectomy. Furthermore, bile duct injuries can be minimized by lateral retraction of the gallbladder neck and careful dissection of Calot’s triangle, the cystic duct–gallbladder junction, and the cystic duct–common bile duct junction.
18 schema:genre article
19 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
20 schema:isPartOf N198d73f3be7344808a75ba41417938eb
21 Nc872f86fe1894237b293fcb13b63d03a
22 sg:journal.1098220
23 schema:keywords Calot's triangle
24 T-tube
25 United States
26 addition
27 anastomosis
28 bed
29 bile duct injury
30 bile leak
31 biliary-enteric anastomosis
32 careful dissection
33 cases
34 cholangiography
35 cholecystectomy
36 common hepatic duct
37 complete transection
38 conversion rate
39 cystic duct
40 cystic duct-common bile duct junction
41 dissection
42 drainage procedures
43 duct
44 duct injury
45 duct junction
46 experience
47 gallbladder neck
48 hepatic duct
49 information
50 injury
51 intraoperative cholangiography
52 junction
53 laparoscopic cholecystectomy
54 laparotomy
55 lateral retraction
56 leak
57 liver bed
58 long-term success rate
59 major bile duct injury
60 management
61 morbidity
62 mortality
63 mortality rate
64 neck
65 number
66 open cholecystectomy
67 open procedure
68 open surgery
69 overall mortality
70 patients
71 placement
72 procedure
73 rate
74 reporting experience
75 retraction
76 review
77 series
78 small number
79 state
80 stent placement
81 success rate
82 surgery
83 total
84 transection
85 triangle
86 schema:name Bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy
87 schema:pagination 315-321
88 schema:productId N4ac15600a7444e7a895149760d6804b9
89 N687b45619e364ccebdc8c0fb63783753
90 N7ca6c1b058c54b1eafbe7cb2255c5caa
91 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053548209
92 https://doi.org/10.1007/s004649900661
93 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-09-02T15:49
94 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
95 schema:sdPublisher N96cfe0b0302348188d166360a6ea29cc
96 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s004649900661
97 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
98 sgo:sdDataset articles
99 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
100 N198d73f3be7344808a75ba41417938eb schema:volumeNumber 12
101 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
102 N1d982faeb2c94dee89540fed1b3f1dd7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
103 schema:name Cholangiography
104 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
105 N21332a9a4cf84ce78b90726d6ef18371 rdf:first sg:person.0616727573.73
106 rdf:rest Nd305f2251ce646ab97d5e52eb6c7da1c
107 N30290294d16f49d6bbad5f404562d509 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
108 schema:name United States
109 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
110 N4ac15600a7444e7a895149760d6804b9 schema:name pubmed_id
111 schema:value 9543520
112 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
113 N59c9c4e0f7284300a593b5db22193a45 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
114 schema:name Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic
115 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
116 N5f3b44f6927b4bf7879de3c6aad8371e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
117 schema:name Bile Ducts
118 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
119 N687b45619e364ccebdc8c0fb63783753 schema:name doi
120 schema:value 10.1007/s004649900661
121 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
122 N78335f2d0f404492847f6000e0b74c8b rdf:first sg:person.01067261645.89
123 rdf:rest Nba5c17b32aa04592aa3fd0bf856eacf3
124 N7ca6c1b058c54b1eafbe7cb2255c5caa schema:name dimensions_id
125 schema:value pub.1053548209
126 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
127 N96cfe0b0302348188d166360a6ea29cc schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
128 rdf:type schema:Organization
129 Nba5c17b32aa04592aa3fd0bf856eacf3 rdf:first sg:person.01154334230.14
130 rdf:rest rdf:nil
131 Nc15073dd23f94989b18550f1ae12c6b6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
132 schema:name Common Bile Duct
133 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
134 Nc85fe7d8fc1a4fc09ef63d57bf83b940 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
135 schema:name Humans
136 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
137 Nc872f86fe1894237b293fcb13b63d03a schema:issueNumber 4
138 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
139 Nd305f2251ce646ab97d5e52eb6c7da1c rdf:first sg:person.0701061537.25
140 rdf:rest N78335f2d0f404492847f6000e0b74c8b
141 Nfbb9c4f8f007453abd533c92f75ed9eb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Hepatic Duct, Common
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
145 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
148 schema:name Clinical Sciences
149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
150 sg:journal.1098220 schema:issn 0930-2794
151 1432-2218
152 schema:name Surgical Endoscopy
153 schema:publisher Springer Nature
154 rdf:type schema:Periodical
155 sg:person.01067261645.89 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.267308.8
156 schema:familyName Ricardo
157 schema:givenName A. E.
158 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01067261645.89
159 rdf:type schema:Person
160 sg:person.01154334230.14 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.267308.8
161 schema:familyName Mathis
162 schema:givenName C. R.
163 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01154334230.14
164 rdf:type schema:Person
165 sg:person.0616727573.73 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.267308.8
166 schema:familyName MacFadyen
167 schema:givenName B. V.
168 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0616727573.73
169 rdf:type schema:Person
170 sg:person.0701061537.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.8158.4
171 schema:familyName Vecchio
172 schema:givenName R.
173 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0701061537.25
174 rdf:type schema:Person
175 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00316827 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010910144
176 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00316827
177 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
178 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00725942 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048543376
179 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00725942
180 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
181 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02210874 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011590994
182 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02210874
183 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
184 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02653211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044059946
185 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02653211
186 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
187 grid-institutes:grid.267308.8 schema:alternateName Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA
188 schema:name Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin, #4292, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, USA
189 rdf:type schema:Organization
190 grid-institutes:grid.8158.4 schema:alternateName Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Via Carnazza n. 2, 95030 Tremestieri Etneo, Italy, Italy
191 schema:name Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Via Carnazza n. 2, 95030 Tremestieri Etneo, Italy, Italy
192 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...