Rheology of arc dacite lavas: experimental determination at low strain rates View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2012-07

AUTHORS

Geoffroy Avard, Alan G. Whittington

ABSTRACT

Andesitic–dacitic volcanoes exhibit a large variety of eruption styles, including explosive eruptions, endogenous and exogenous dome growth, and kilometer-long lava flows. The rheology of these lavas can be investigated through field observations of flow and dome morphology, but this approach integrates the properties of lava over a wide range of temperatures. Another approach is through laboratory experiments; however, previous studies have used higher shear stresses and strain rates than are appropriate to lava flows. We measured the apparent viscosity of several lavas from Santiaguito and Bezymianny volcanoes by uniaxial compression, between 1,109 and 1,315 K, at low shear stress (0.085 to 0.42 MPa), low strain rate (between 1.1 × 10−8 and 1.9 × 10−5 s−1), and up to 43.7 % total deformation. The results show a strong variability of the apparent viscosity between different samples, which can be ascribed to differences in initial porosity and crystallinity. Deformation occurs primarily by compaction, with some cracking and/or vesicle coalescence. Our experiments yield apparent viscosities more than 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted by models based on experiments at higher strain rates. At lava flow conditions, no evidence of a yield strength is observed, and the apparent viscosity is best approached by a strain rate- and temperature-dependent power law equation. The best fit for Santiaguito lava, for temperatures between 1,164 and 1,226 K and strain rates lower than 1.8 × 10−4 s−1, is where ηapp is apparent viscosity and is strain rate. This equation also reproduced 45 data for a sample from Bezymianny with a root mean square deviation of 0.19 log unit Pa s. Applying the rheological model to lava flow conditions at Santiaguito yields calculated apparent viscosities that are in reasonable agreement with field observations and suggests that internal shear heating may be significant ongoing heat source within these flows, enabling highly viscous lava to travel long distances. More... »

PAGES

1039-1056

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00445-012-0584-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-012-0584-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007930926


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49 schema:description Andesitic–dacitic volcanoes exhibit a large variety of eruption styles, including explosive eruptions, endogenous and exogenous dome growth, and kilometer-long lava flows. The rheology of these lavas can be investigated through field observations of flow and dome morphology, but this approach integrates the properties of lava over a wide range of temperatures. Another approach is through laboratory experiments; however, previous studies have used higher shear stresses and strain rates than are appropriate to lava flows. We measured the apparent viscosity of several lavas from Santiaguito and Bezymianny volcanoes by uniaxial compression, between 1,109 and 1,315 K, at low shear stress (0.085 to 0.42 MPa), low strain rate (between 1.1 × 10−8 and 1.9 × 10−5 s−1), and up to 43.7 % total deformation. The results show a strong variability of the apparent viscosity between different samples, which can be ascribed to differences in initial porosity and crystallinity. Deformation occurs primarily by compaction, with some cracking and/or vesicle coalescence. Our experiments yield apparent viscosities more than 1 order of magnitude lower than predicted by models based on experiments at higher strain rates. At lava flow conditions, no evidence of a yield strength is observed, and the apparent viscosity is best approached by a strain rate- and temperature-dependent power law equation. The best fit for Santiaguito lava, for temperatures between 1,164 and 1,226 K and strain rates lower than 1.8 × 10−4 s−1, is where ηapp is apparent viscosity and is strain rate. This equation also reproduced 45 data for a sample from Bezymianny with a root mean square deviation of 0.19 log unit Pa s. Applying the rheological model to lava flow conditions at Santiaguito yields calculated apparent viscosities that are in reasonable agreement with field observations and suggests that internal shear heating may be significant ongoing heat source within these flows, enabling highly viscous lava to travel long distances.
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