Top-down regulation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in its native range in the Pacific Northwest of North America View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2022-07-07

AUTHORS

Ryan S. Crandall, Jeffrey A. Lombardo, Joseph S. Elkinton

ABSTRACT

The density of insect herbivores is regulated by top-down factors (e.g., natural enemies), bottom-up effects (e.g., plant defenses against herbivory), or a combination of both. As such, understanding the relative importance of these factors can have important implications for the establishment of effective management options for invasive species. Here, we compared the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up factors on the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae. HWA is invasive in eastern North America, but its native range includes the Pacific Northwest of North America where it has co-evolved with western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, can also be found planted in city and park settings in the Pacific Northwest and the presence of both host species allowed us to directly compare the importance of predators (top-down) and host plant resistance (bottom-up) on HWA abundance by placing mesh exclusion bags on branches of both species and monitoring HWA abundance over two years. We found no evidence for bottom-up control of HWA on western hemlock (a native host). HWA established more readily on that species than on eastern hemlock on which it is a major pest in eastern North America. We found strong evidence for top-down control in that both summer and winter-active predators significantly reduced HWA densities on the branches of both tree species where predators were allowed access. These findings support the validity of the biological control program for HWA, the goal of which is to reduce outbreak populations of HWA in eastern North America. More... »

PAGES

599-609

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00442-022-05214-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-022-05214-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1149305558

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35796819


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