Gene expression of sex steroid metabolizing enzymes and receptors in the skeletal muscle of migrant and resident subspecies of white-crowned ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-06-22

AUTHORS

Jesse S. Krause, Trevor Watkins, Angus M. A. Reid, Jeffrey C. Cheah, Jonathan H. Pérez, Valerie R. Bishop, Marilyn Ramenofsky, John C. Wingfield, Simone L. Meddle

ABSTRACT

Circulating sex steroid concentrations vary dramatically across the year in seasonally breeding animals. The ability of circulating sex steroids to effect muscle function can be modulated by changes in intracellular expression of steroid metabolizing enzymes (e.g., 5α-reductase type 2 and aromatase) and receptors. Together, these combined changes in plasma hormones, metabolizing enzymes and receptors allow for seasonally appropriate changes in skeletal muscle function. We tested the hypothesis that gene expression of sex steroid metabolizing enzymes and receptors would vary seasonally in skeletal muscle and these changes would differ between a migrant and resident life history strategy. We quantified annual changes in plasma testosterone and gene expression in pectoralis and gastrocnemius skeletal muscles using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in free-living migrant (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and resident (Z. l. nuttalli) subspecies of white-crowned sparrow during breeding, pre-basic molt, and wintering life history stages. Pectoralis muscle profile was largest in migrants during breeding, while residents maintained large muscle profiles year-round. Circulating testosterone peaked during breeding in both subspecies. Pectoralis muscle androgen receptor mRNA expression was lower in females of both subspecies during breeding. Estrogen receptor-α expression was higher in the pectoralis muscle, but not gastrocnemius, of residents throughout the annual cycle when compared to migrants. Pectoralis aromatase expression was higher in resident males compared to migrant males. No differences were observed for 5α-reductase 2. Between these two subspecies, patterns of plasma testosterone and androgen receptors appear to be conserved, however estrogen receptor gene expression appears to have diverged. More... »

PAGES

549-562

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2020-03-05. Autumn migratory departure is influenced by reproductive timing and weather in an Arctic passerine in JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY
  • 2017-11-15. The evolution of androgen receptor expression and behavior in Anolis lizard forelimb muscles in JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A
  • 2019-07-10. Migration pattern of Gambel’s White-crowned Sparrow along the Pacific Flyway in JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00442-022-05204-w

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-022-05204-w

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1148871056

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35732927


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    28 schema:description Circulating sex steroid concentrations vary dramatically across the year in seasonally breeding animals. The ability of circulating sex steroids to effect muscle function can be modulated by changes in intracellular expression of steroid metabolizing enzymes (e.g., 5α-reductase type 2 and aromatase) and receptors. Together, these combined changes in plasma hormones, metabolizing enzymes and receptors allow for seasonally appropriate changes in skeletal muscle function. We tested the hypothesis that gene expression of sex steroid metabolizing enzymes and receptors would vary seasonally in skeletal muscle and these changes would differ between a migrant and resident life history strategy. We quantified annual changes in plasma testosterone and gene expression in pectoralis and gastrocnemius skeletal muscles using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in free-living migrant (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) and resident (Z. l. nuttalli) subspecies of white-crowned sparrow during breeding, pre-basic molt, and wintering life history stages. Pectoralis muscle profile was largest in migrants during breeding, while residents maintained large muscle profiles year-round. Circulating testosterone peaked during breeding in both subspecies. Pectoralis muscle androgen receptor mRNA expression was lower in females of both subspecies during breeding. Estrogen receptor-α expression was higher in the pectoralis muscle, but not gastrocnemius, of residents throughout the annual cycle when compared to migrants. Pectoralis aromatase expression was higher in resident males compared to migrant males. No differences were observed for 5α-reductase 2. Between these two subspecies, patterns of plasma testosterone and androgen receptors appear to be conserved, however estrogen receptor gene expression appears to have diverged.
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    57 history stages
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    59 hormone
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    62 life history stages
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    65 males
    66 migrant males
    67 migrants
    68 moult
    69 muscle
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    71 muscle profile
    72 patterns
    73 pectoralis
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    75 plasma hormones
    76 plasma testosterone
    77 polymerase chain reaction
    78 pre-basic molt
    79 profile
    80 quantitative polymerase chain reaction
    81 reaction
    82 receptor gene expression
    83 receptor mRNA expression
    84 receptors
    85 resident males
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    90 skeletal muscle
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