Developmental responses to predation risk in morphologically defended mayflies View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2003-10

AUTHORS

Jonas Dahl, Barbara L. Peckarsky

ABSTRACT

Densities and species composition of predators could affect morphological defences, larval development and the timing of emergence of their prey. To address this issue we studied the morphology and life history of an ephemerellid mayfly, Ephemerella invaria, from two streams in a deciduous forested drainage basin in central New York. Both streams contained predatory fish, but densities and species composition of fish differed. A field survey provided evidence that Ephemerella inhabiting a stream with > or =10 fish species and high relative densities of fish emerged several weeks earlier and at smaller sizes than Ephemerella inhabiting a nearby tributary with approximately 2 fish species and low relative densities of fish. However, the two populations of mayflies showed no differences in defensive morphology or growth rates. In laboratory rearing experiments, we exposed Ephemerella larvae from these two locations to fish chemical cues or control water (no fish) over 2 months to test whether differences in life histories could be attributed to fish. Fish cues induced faster larval development, but also smaller size of mature Ephemerella individuals from both high and low predator locations. Although shorter development times in more dangerous environments could increase larval survival, smaller size of females results in a fecundity cost associated with this life history shift. Consistent with the field studies, laboratory rearing experiments revealed no effects of fish cues on Ephemerella's morphological defences. These data suggest that variation in the density or species composition of predators may favour the evolution of developmental plasticity to reduce mortality in the larval environment. More... »

PAGES

188-194

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00442-003-1326-0

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-003-1326-0

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023208696

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12851808


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62 schema:description Densities and species composition of predators could affect morphological defences, larval development and the timing of emergence of their prey. To address this issue we studied the morphology and life history of an ephemerellid mayfly, Ephemerella invaria, from two streams in a deciduous forested drainage basin in central New York. Both streams contained predatory fish, but densities and species composition of fish differed. A field survey provided evidence that Ephemerella inhabiting a stream with > or =10 fish species and high relative densities of fish emerged several weeks earlier and at smaller sizes than Ephemerella inhabiting a nearby tributary with approximately 2 fish species and low relative densities of fish. However, the two populations of mayflies showed no differences in defensive morphology or growth rates. In laboratory rearing experiments, we exposed Ephemerella larvae from these two locations to fish chemical cues or control water (no fish) over 2 months to test whether differences in life histories could be attributed to fish. Fish cues induced faster larval development, but also smaller size of mature Ephemerella individuals from both high and low predator locations. Although shorter development times in more dangerous environments could increase larval survival, smaller size of females results in a fecundity cost associated with this life history shift. Consistent with the field studies, laboratory rearing experiments revealed no effects of fish cues on Ephemerella's morphological defences. These data suggest that variation in the density or species composition of predators may favour the evolution of developmental plasticity to reduce mortality in the larval environment.
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