The molecular mechanism of SLC34 proteins: insights from two decades of transport assays and structure-function studies View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2018-09-22

AUTHORS

Ian C. Forster

ABSTRACT

The expression cloning some 25 years ago of the first member of SLC34 solute carrier family, the renal sodium-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIa) from rat and human tissue, heralded a new era of research into renal phosphate handling by focussing on the carrier proteins that mediate phosphate transport. The cloning of NaPi-IIa was followed by that of the intestinal NaPi-IIb and renal NaPi-IIc isoforms. These three proteins constitute the main secondary-active Na+-driven pathways for apical entry of inorganic phosphate (Pi) across renal and intestinal epithelial, as well as other epithelial-like organs. The key role these proteins play in mammalian Pi homeostasis was revealed in the intervening decades by numerous in vitro and animal studies, including the development of knockout animals for each gene and the detection of naturally occurring mutations that can lead to Pi-handling dysfunction in humans. In addition to characterising their physiological regulation, research has also focused on understanding the underlying transport mechanism and identifying structure-function relationships. Over the past two decades, this research effort has used real-time electrophysiological and fluorometric assays together with novel computational biology strategies to develop a detailed, but still incomplete, understanding of the transport mechanism of SLC34 proteins at the molecular level. This review will focus on how our present understanding of their molecular mechanism has evolved in this period by highlighting the key experimental findings. More... »

PAGES

15-42

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    43 schema:description The expression cloning some 25 years ago of the first member of SLC34 solute carrier family, the renal sodium-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIa) from rat and human tissue, heralded a new era of research into renal phosphate handling by focussing on the carrier proteins that mediate phosphate transport. The cloning of NaPi-IIa was followed by that of the intestinal NaPi-IIb and renal NaPi-IIc isoforms. These three proteins constitute the main secondary-active Na+-driven pathways for apical entry of inorganic phosphate (Pi) across renal and intestinal epithelial, as well as other epithelial-like organs. The key role these proteins play in mammalian Pi homeostasis was revealed in the intervening decades by numerous in vitro and animal studies, including the development of knockout animals for each gene and the detection of naturally occurring mutations that can lead to Pi-handling dysfunction in humans. In addition to characterising their physiological regulation, research has also focused on understanding the underlying transport mechanism and identifying structure-function relationships. Over the past two decades, this research effort has used real-time electrophysiological and fluorometric assays together with novel computational biology strategies to develop a detailed, but still incomplete, understanding of the transport mechanism of SLC34 proteins at the molecular level. This review will focus on how our present understanding of their molecular mechanism has evolved in this period by highlighting the key experimental findings.
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    52 NaPi-IIc isoforms
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    55 SLC34 proteins
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    61 assays
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    68 decades
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    74 epithelial-like organs
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    81 fluorometric assay
    82 genes
    83 handling
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    85 human tissues
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    87 inorganic phosphate
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