Patterns of responses and time-course of changes in muscle size and strength during low-load blood flow restriction resistance training in ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-02-27

AUTHORS

Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Joshua L. Keller, Cory M. Smith, John V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson, Joel T. Cramer

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and composite patterns of responses and time-course of changes in muscle size, strength, and edema throughout a 4 week low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) resistance training intervention.MethodsTwenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; 23 ± 3 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks (3/week) of LLBFR (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal isokinetic forearm flexion–extension muscle actions performed at 30% of peak torque. Strength and ultrasound-based assessments were determined at each training session.ResultsThere were quadratic increases for composite muscle thickness (R2 = 0.998), concentric peak torque (R2 = 0.962), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (R2 = 0.980) data for the LLBFR group. For muscle thickness, seven of ten subjects exceeded the minimal difference (MD) of 0.16 cm during the very early phase (laboratory visits 1–7) of the intervention compared to three of ten subjects that exceeded MD for either concentric peak torque (3.7 Nm) or MVIC (2.2 Nm) during this same time period. There was a linear increase for composite echo intensity (r2 = 0.563) as a result of LLBFR resistance training, but eight of ten subjects never exceeded the MD of 14.2 Au.ConclusionsThese findings suggested that the increases in muscle thickness for the LLBFR group were not associated with edema and changes in echo intensity should be examined on a subject-by-subject basis. Furthermore, LLBFR forearm flexion–extension resistance training elicited real increases in muscle size during the very early phase of training that occurred prior to real increases in muscle strength. More... »

PAGES

1473-1485

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2015-08-18. Early resistance training-induced increases in muscle cross-sectional area are concomitant with edema-induced muscle swelling in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
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  • 2016-12-24. Differentiating swelling and hypertrophy through indirect assessment of muscle damage in untrained men following repeated bouts of resistance exercise in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
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  • 2017-04-27. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
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  • 2012-09-27. Blood flow restriction does not result in prolonged decrements in torque in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2019-12-17. Low-load blood flow restriction elicits greater concentric strength than non-blood flow restriction resistance training but similar isometric strength and muscle size in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2014-03-09. The contribution of muscle hypertrophy to strength changes following resistance training in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2011-03-16. An examination of the time course of training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2014-02-11. Relationship between quadriceps femoris echo intensity, muscle power, and functional capacity of older men in GEROSCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00421-021-04627-2

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    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04627-2

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    29 schema:description PurposeThe purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and composite patterns of responses and time-course of changes in muscle size, strength, and edema throughout a 4 week low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) resistance training intervention.MethodsTwenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; 23 ± 3 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks (3/week) of LLBFR (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal isokinetic forearm flexion–extension muscle actions performed at 30% of peak torque. Strength and ultrasound-based assessments were determined at each training session.ResultsThere were quadratic increases for composite muscle thickness (R2 = 0.998), concentric peak torque (R2 = 0.962), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (R2 = 0.980) data for the LLBFR group. For muscle thickness, seven of ten subjects exceeded the minimal difference (MD) of 0.16 cm during the very early phase (laboratory visits 1–7) of the intervention compared to three of ten subjects that exceeded MD for either concentric peak torque (3.7 Nm) or MVIC (2.2 Nm) during this same time period. There was a linear increase for composite echo intensity (r2 = 0.563) as a result of LLBFR resistance training, but eight of ten subjects never exceeded the MD of 14.2 Au.ConclusionsThese findings suggested that the increases in muscle thickness for the LLBFR group were not associated with edema and changes in echo intensity should be examined on a subject-by-subject basis. Furthermore, LLBFR forearm flexion–extension resistance training elicited real increases in muscle size during the very early phase of training that occurred prior to real increases in muscle strength.
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    46 changes
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    53 echo intensity
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