The extensive amplification of heterochromatin in Melipona bees revealed by high throughput genomic and chromosomal analysis View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2021-11-26

AUTHORS

Jaqueline A. Pereira, Diogo Milani, Ana Beatriz S. M. Ferretti, Vanessa B. Bardella, Diogo C. Cabral-de-Mello, Denilce M. Lopes

ABSTRACT

Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) and transposable elements (TEs) are among the main components of constitutive heterochromatin (c-heterochromatin) and are related to their functionality, dynamics, and evolution. A peculiar case regarding the quantity and distribution of c-heterochromatin is observed in the genus of bees, Melipona, with species having a low amount of heterochromatin and species with high amount occupying almost all chromosomes. By combining low-pass genome sequencing and chromosomal analysis, we characterized the satDNAs and TEs of Melipona quadrifasciata (low c-heterochromatin) and Melipona scutellaris (high low c-heterochromatin) to understand c-heterochromatin composition and evolution. We identified 15 satDNA families and 20 TEs for both species. Significant variations in the repeat landscapes were observed between the species. In M. quadrifasciata, the repetitive fraction corresponded to only 3.78% of the genome library studied, whereas in M. scutellaris, it represented 54.95%. Massive quantitative and qualitative changes contributed to the differential amplification of c-heterochromatin, mainly due to the amplification of exclusive repetitions in M. scutellaris, as the satDNA MscuSat01-195 and the TE LTR/Gypsy_1 that represent 38.20 and 14.4% of its genome, respectively. The amplification of these two repeats is evident at the chromosomal level, with observation of their occurrence on most c-heterochromatin. Moreover, we detected repeats shared between species, revealing that they experienced mainly quantitative variations and varied in the organization on chromosomes and evolutionary patterns. Together, our data allow the discussion of patterns of evolution of repetitive DNAs and c-heterochromatin that occurred in a short period of time, after separation of the Michmelia and Melipona subgenera. More... »

PAGES

251-262

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 2018-11-19. Ten things you should know about transposable elements in GENOME BIOLOGY
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  • 2002-04. DNA characterization and karyotypic evolution in the bee genus Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) in HEREDITAS
  • 2021-01-15. Molecular cytogenetics in the study of repetitive sequences helping to understand the evolution of heterochromatin in Melipona (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) in GENETICA
  • 2020-06-27. Insights into the heterochromatin evolution in the genus Melipona (Apidae: Meliponini) in INSECTES SOCIAUX
  • 2018-05-01. Repetitive DNAs in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponidae): chromosomal distribution and test of multiple heterochromatin amplification in the genus in APIDOLOGIE
  • 1994-09-15. The evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNA in eukaryotes in NATURE
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  • 2021-02-24. Universal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol for mapping repetitive DNAs in insects and other arthropods in MOLECULAR GENETICS AND GENOMICS
  • 2003-06. Longitudinal differentiation in Melipona mandacaia (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) chromosomes in HEREDITAS
  • 2018-01-13. Transposable elements: genome innovation, chromosome diversity, and centromere conflict in CHROMOSOME RESEARCH
  • 2016-07-07. High-throughput analysis of the satellitome illuminates satellite DNA evolution in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2010-06-02. Genome size variation in Melipona species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and sub-grouping by their DNA content in APIDOLOGIE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00412-021-00764-x

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    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

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    28 schema:description Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) and transposable elements (TEs) are among the main components of constitutive heterochromatin (c-heterochromatin) and are related to their functionality, dynamics, and evolution. A peculiar case regarding the quantity and distribution of c-heterochromatin is observed in the genus of bees, Melipona, with species having a low amount of heterochromatin and species with high amount occupying almost all chromosomes. By combining low-pass genome sequencing and chromosomal analysis, we characterized the satDNAs and TEs of Melipona quadrifasciata (low c-heterochromatin) and Melipona scutellaris (high low c-heterochromatin) to understand c-heterochromatin composition and evolution. We identified 15 satDNA families and 20 TEs for both species. Significant variations in the repeat landscapes were observed between the species. In M. quadrifasciata, the repetitive fraction corresponded to only 3.78% of the genome library studied, whereas in M. scutellaris, it represented 54.95%. Massive quantitative and qualitative changes contributed to the differential amplification of c-heterochromatin, mainly due to the amplification of exclusive repetitions in M. scutellaris, as the satDNA MscuSat01-195 and the TE LTR/Gypsy_1 that represent 38.20 and 14.4% of its genome, respectively. The amplification of these two repeats is evident at the chromosomal level, with observation of their occurrence on most c-heterochromatin. Moreover, we detected repeats shared between species, revealing that they experienced mainly quantitative variations and varied in the organization on chromosomes and evolutionary patterns. Together, our data allow the discussion of patterns of evolution of repetitive DNAs and c-heterochromatin that occurred in a short period of time, after separation of the Michmelia and Melipona subgenera.
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    39 Melipona
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    41 Melipona quadrifasciata
    42 Melipona scutellaris
    43 amount
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    46 bees
    47 cases
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    57 discussion
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    65 family
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    68 genera of bees
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