Interphase epichromatin: last refuge for the 30-nm chromatin fiber? View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2021-06-05

AUTHORS

Peng Xu, Julia Mahamid, Marco Dombrowski, Wolfgang Baumeister, Ada L. Olins, Donald E. Olins

ABSTRACT

“Interphase epichromatin” describes the surface of chromatin located adjacent to the interphase nuclear envelope. It was discovered in 2011 using a bivalent anti-nucleosome antibody (mAb PL2-6), now known to be directed against the nucleosome acidic patch. The molecular structure of interphase epichromatin is unknown, but is thought to be heterochromatic with a high density of “exposed” acidic patches. In the 1960s, transmission electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated, sectioned, and stained inactive chromatin revealed “unit threads,” frequently organized into parallel arrays at the nuclear envelope, which were interpreted as regular helices with ~ 30-nm center-to-center distance. Also observed in certain cell types, the nuclear envelope forms a “sandwich” around a layer of closely packed unit threads (ELCS, envelope-limited chromatin sheets). Discovery of the nucleosome in 1974 led to revised helical models of chromatin. But these models became very controversial and the existence of in situ 30-nm chromatin fibers has been challenged. Development of cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) gave hope that in situ chromatin fibers, devoid of artifacts, could be structurally defined. Combining a contrast-enhancing phase plate and cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET), it is now possible to visualize chromatin in a “close-to-native” situation. ELCS are particularly interesting to study by Cryo-ET. The chromatin sheet appears to have two layers of ~ 30-nm chromatin fibers arranged in a criss-crossed pattern. The chromatin in ELCS is continuous with adjacent interphase epichromatin. It appears that hydrated ~ 30-nm chromatin fibers are quite rare in most cells, possibly confined to interphase epichromatin at the nuclear envelope. More... »

PAGES

91-102

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00412-021-00759-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00412-021-00759-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1138636439

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34091761


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