Diffusive equilibration between hydrous metaluminous-peraluminous haplogranite liquid couples at 200 MPa (H2O) and alkali transport in granitic liquids View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2008-02

AUTHORS

George B. Morgan, Antonio Acosta-Vigil, David London

ABSTRACT

This study examines the systematics and rate of alkali transport in haplogranite diffusion couples in which a chemical potential gradient in Al is established between near water-saturated metaluminous and peraluminous liquids that differ only in their initial content of normative corundum. At 800°C, measurable chemical diffusion of alkalis occurs throughout the entire length (∼1 cm) of the diffusion couples in 2–6 h, indicating long range diffusive communication through melt. Alkali transport results in homogenization of initially different Na/Al and ASI [=mol. Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)] throughout the couples within ∼24 h, whereas initially homogenous K* evolves to become uniformly different between metaluminous and peraluminous ends. Calculated effective binary diffusion coefficients for alkalis in experiments that do not significantly violate the requirement of a semi-infinite chemical reservoir (0- to 2-h duration at 800°C) are similar to those observed in previous studies: in the range of (1–8) × 10−12 m2/s. Such a magnitude of diffusivity, however, is inadequate to account for the observed changes of alkali concentrations and molecular ratios throughout the couples in 2- to 6-h experiments. The latter changes are consistent with diffusivities estimated via the x2 = Dt approximation, which yields effective values around 10−9 m2/s. These observations suggest that Fick’s law alone does not adequately describe the diffusive transport of alkalis in granitic liquids. In addition to simple ionic diffusion associated with local gradients in concentration or chemical potential of the diffusing component described by Fick’s second law (local diffusion), alkali transport through melt involves system-wide diffusion (field diffusion) driven by chemical potential gradients that also include components with which the alkalis couple or complex (e.g., Al). Field diffusion involves the coordinated migration of essentially all alkali cations, resembling a positive ionic current that drives the system to a metastable state having a minimum energy configuration with respect to alkali distribution. The net result is effective transport rates perhaps three orders of magnitude faster than simple local alkali diffusion, and at least seven to eight orders of magnitude faster than the diffusive equilibration of Al and Si. More... »

PAGES

257-269

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2006-05. Experiments on the kinetics of partial melting of a leucogranite at 200 MPa H2O and 690–800°C: compositional variability of melts during the onset of H2O-saturated crustal anatexis in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1977-01. The system: Two alkali feldspars-KCl-NaCl-H2O at moderate to high temperatures and low pressures in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1985-04. Structural controls and mechanisms of diffusion in natural silicate melts in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1999-09. Crystallization of the Little Three layered pegmatite-aplite dike, Ramona District, California in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1982-08. Basalt contamination by continental crust: Some experiments and models in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1982-10. Tracer diffusion of some alkali, alkaline-earth and transition element ions in a basaltic and an andesitic melt, and the implications concerning melt structure in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1991-02. Interdiffusion of hydrous dacitic and rhyolitic melts and the efficacy of rhyolite contamination of dacitic enclaves in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1990-07. Chemical interdiffusion of dacite and rhyolite: anhydrous measurements at 1 atm and 10 kbar, application of transition state theory, and diffusion in zoned magma chambers in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1983-03. Kinetics of zircon dissolution and zirconium diffusion in granitic melts of variable water content in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 2005-05. Contrasting interactions of sodium and potassium with H2O in haplogranitic liquids and glasses at 200 MPa from hydration–diffusion experiments in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 2005-11. Phosphorus distribution between potassic alkali feldspar and metaluminous haplogranitic liquid at 200 MPa (H2O): the effect of undercooling on crystal–liquid systematics in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 2003-10. Solubility of excess alumina in hydrous granitic melts in equilibrium with peraluminous minerals at 700–800 °C and 200 MPa, and applications of the aluminum saturation index in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
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    36 schema:description This study examines the systematics and rate of alkali transport in haplogranite diffusion couples in which a chemical potential gradient in Al is established between near water-saturated metaluminous and peraluminous liquids that differ only in their initial content of normative corundum. At 800°C, measurable chemical diffusion of alkalis occurs throughout the entire length (∼1 cm) of the diffusion couples in 2–6 h, indicating long range diffusive communication through melt. Alkali transport results in homogenization of initially different Na/Al and ASI [=mol. Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O)] throughout the couples within ∼24 h, whereas initially homogenous K* evolves to become uniformly different between metaluminous and peraluminous ends. Calculated effective binary diffusion coefficients for alkalis in experiments that do not significantly violate the requirement of a semi-infinite chemical reservoir (0- to 2-h duration at 800°C) are similar to those observed in previous studies: in the range of (1–8) × 10−12 m2/s. Such a magnitude of diffusivity, however, is inadequate to account for the observed changes of alkali concentrations and molecular ratios throughout the couples in 2- to 6-h experiments. The latter changes are consistent with diffusivities estimated via the x2 = Dt approximation, which yields effective values around 10−9 m2/s. These observations suggest that Fick’s law alone does not adequately describe the diffusive transport of alkalis in granitic liquids. In addition to simple ionic diffusion associated with local gradients in concentration or chemical potential of the diffusing component described by Fick’s second law (local diffusion), alkali transport through melt involves system-wide diffusion (field diffusion) driven by chemical potential gradients that also include components with which the alkalis couple or complex (e.g., Al). Field diffusion involves the coordinated migration of essentially all alkali cations, resembling a positive ionic current that drives the system to a metastable state having a minimum energy configuration with respect to alkali distribution. The net result is effective transport rates perhaps three orders of magnitude faster than simple local alkali diffusion, and at least seven to eight orders of magnitude faster than the diffusive equilibration of Al and Si.
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