Silver diagnosis in neuropathology: principles, practice and revised interpretation View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2007-03-31

AUTHORS

Toshiki Uchihara

ABSTRACT

Silver-staining methods are helpful for histological identification of pathological deposits. In spite of some ambiguities regarding their mechanism and interpretation, they are widely used for histopathological diagnosis. In this review, four major silver-staining methods, modified Bielschowsky, Bodian, Gallyas (GAL) and Campbell-Switzer (CS) methods, are outlined with respect to their principles, basic protocols and interpretations, thereby providing neuropathologists, technicians and neuroscientists with a common basis for comparing findings and identifying the issues that still need to be clarified. Some consider "argyrophilia" to be a homogeneous phenomenon irrespective of the lesion and the method. Thus, they seek to explain the differences among the methods by pointing to their different sensitivities in detecting lesions (quantitative difference). Comparative studies, however, have demonstrated that argyrophilia is heterogeneous and dependent not only on the method but also on the lesion (qualitative difference). Each staining method has its own lesion-dependent specificity and, within this specificity, its own sensitivity. This "method- and lesion-dependent" nature of argyrophilia enables operational sorting of disease-specific lesions based on their silver-staining profiles, which may potentially represent some disease-specific aspects. Furthermore, comparisons between immunohistochemical and biochemical data have revealed an empirical correlation between GAL+/CS-deposits and 4-repeat (4R) tau (corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy and argyrophilic grains) and its complementary reversal between GAL-/CS+deposits and 3-repeat (3R) tau (Pick bodies). Deposits containing both 3R and 4R tau (neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer type) are GAL+/CS+. Although no molecular explanations, other than these empiric correlations, are currently available, these distinctive features, especially when combined with immunohistochemistry, are useful because silver-staining methods and immunoreactions are complementary to each other. More... »

PAGES

483-499

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 1992-01. A comparative study of histological and immunohistochemical methods for neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease in ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
  • 2005-07-08. Silver stainings distinguish Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions: comparison between Gallyas-Braak and Campbell-Switzer methods in ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
  • 2001-06. Evolution from pretangle neurons to neurofibrillary tangles monitored by thiazin red combined with Gallyas method and double immunofluorescence in ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
  • 2002-07-26. Argyrophilic grain disease and Alzheimer's disease are distinguished by their different distribution of tau protein isoforms in ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00401-007-0200-2

    DOI

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17401570


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