Nutrients or nursing? Understanding how breast milk feeding affects child cognition View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-02-26

AUTHORS

Wei Wei Pang, Pei Ting Tan, Shirong Cai, Doris Fok, Mei Chien Chua, Sock Bee Lim, Lynette P. Shek, Shiao-Yng Chan, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Peter D. Gluckman, Keith M. Godfrey, Michael J. Meaney, Birit F. P. Broekman, Michael S. Kramer, Yap-Seng Chong, Anne Rifkin-Graboi

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the "nutrients") and mode of breast milk feeding (the "nursing") with child cognition. METHODS: Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For "nutrients", we compared children exclusively bottle-fed according to type of milk received: formula only (n = 296) vs some/all breast milk (n = 73). For "nursing", we included only children who were fully fed breast milk, comparing those fed directly at the breast (n = 59) vs those fed partially/completely by bottle (n = 63). RESULTS: Compared to infants fed formula only, those who were bottle-fed breast milk demonstrated significantly better cognitive performance on both the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) at 2 years [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 1.36 (0.32, 2.40)], and on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (Second Edition) at 4.5 years [7.59 (1.20, 13.99)]. Children bottle-fed breast milk also demonstrated better gross motor skills at 2 years than those fed formula [1.60 (0.09, 3.10)]. Among infants fully fed breast milk, those fed directly at the breast scored higher on several memory tasks compared to children bottle-fed breast milk, including the deferred imitation task at 6 months [0.67 (0.02, 1.32)] and relational binding tasks at 6 [0.41 (0.07, 0.74)], 41 [0.67 (0.04, 1.29)] and 54 [0.12 (0.01, 0.22)] months. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nutrients in breast milk may improve general child cognition, while nursing infants directly at the breast may influence memory. More... »

PAGES

1-11

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00394-019-01929-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-01929-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112393045

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30809702


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