Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2017-08

AUTHORS

M. D. Palmer, C. D. Roberts, M. Balmaseda, Y.-S. Chang, G. Chepurin, N. Ferry, Y. Fujii, S. A. Good, S. Guinehut, K. Haines, F. Hernandez, A. Köhl, T. Lee, M. J. Martin, S. Masina, S. Masuda, K. A. Peterson, A. Storto, T. Toyoda, M. Valdivieso, G. Vernieres, O. Wang, Y. Xue

ABSTRACT

Accurate knowledge of the location and magnitude of ocean heat content (OHC) variability and change is essential for understanding the processes that govern decadal variations in surface temperature, quantifying changes in the planetary energy budget, and developing constraints on the transient climate response to external forcings. We present an overview of the temporal and spatial characteristics of OHC variability and change as represented by an ensemble of dynamical and statistical ocean reanalyses (ORAs). Spatial maps of the 0–300 m layer show large regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans where the interannual variability of the ensemble mean exceeds ensemble spread, indicating that OHC variations are well-constrained by the available observations over the period 1993–2009. At deeper levels, the ORAs are less well-constrained by observations with the largest differences across the ensemble mostly associated with areas of high eddy kinetic energy, such as the Southern Ocean and boundary current regions. Spatial patterns of OHC change for the period 1997–2009 show good agreement in the upper 300 m and are characterized by a strong dipole pattern in the Pacific Ocean. There is less agreement in the patterns of change at deeper levels, potentially linked to differences in the representation of ocean dynamics, such as water mass formation processes. However, the Atlantic and Southern Oceans are regions in which many ORAs show widespread warming below 700 m over the period 1997–2009. Annual time series of global and hemispheric OHC change for 0–700 m show the largest spread for the data sparse Southern Hemisphere and a number of ORAs seem to be subject to large initialization ‘shock’ over the first few years. In agreement with previous studies, a number of ORAs exhibit enhanced ocean heat uptake below 300 and 700 m during the mid-1990s or early 2000s. The ORA ensemble mean (±1 standard deviation) of rolling 5-year trends in full-depth OHC shows a relatively steady heat uptake of approximately 0.9 ± 0.8 W m−2 (expressed relative to Earth’s surface area) between 1995 and 2002, which reduces to about 0.2 ± 0.6 W m−2 between 2004 and 2006, in qualitative agreement with recent analysis of Earth’s energy imbalance. There is a marked reduction in the ensemble spread of OHC trends below 300 m as the Argo profiling float observations become available in the early 2000s. In general, we suggest that ORAs should be treated with caution when employed to understand past ocean warming trends—especially when considering the deeper ocean where there is little in the way of observational constraints. The current work emphasizes the need to better observe the deep ocean, both for providing observational constraints for future ocean state estimation efforts and also to develop improved models and data assimilation methods. More... »

PAGES

909-930

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2017-08. An assessment of air–sea heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2017-08. Enhancement of the southward return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by data assimilation and its influence in an assimilative ocean simulation forced by CORE-II atmospheric forcing in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2017-08. Intercomparison and validation of the mixed layer depth fields of global ocean syntheses in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2012-02. Observed changes in top-of-the-atmosphere radiation and upper-ocean heating consistent within uncertainty in NATURE GEOSCIENCE
  • 2013-02. An assessment of oceanic variability for 1960–2010 from the GFDL ensemble coupled data assimilation in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2015-03. Unabated planetary warming and its ocean structure since 2006 in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2011-10. Model-based evidence of deep-ocean heat uptake during surface-temperature hiatus periods in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2014-03. Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2012-06. 135 years of global ocean warming between the Challenger expedition and the Argo Programme in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2013-08. Predictability of the mid-latitude Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in a multi-model system in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2011-12. An assessment of oceanic variability in the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis in CLIMATE DYNAMICS
  • 2014-03. Pause for thought in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2010-05. Robust warming of the global upper ocean in NATURE
  • 2014-01. Atlantic overturning in decline? in NATURE GEOSCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051858024


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0405", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Oceanography", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/04", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Earth Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Met Office", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37", 
              "name": [
                "Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Palmer", 
            "givenName": "M. D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.016317430671.85", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016317430671.85"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Met Office", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37", 
              "name": [
                "Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Roberts", 
            "givenName": "C. D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011437730401.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011437730401.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42781.38", 
              "name": [
                "European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), Reading, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Balmaseda", 
            "givenName": "M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010507005427.12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010507005427.12"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Princeton University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16750.35", 
              "name": [
                "Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Chang", 
            "givenName": "Y.-S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013001671735.47", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013001671735.47"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Maryland, College Park", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.164295.d", 
              "name": [
                "University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Chepurin", 
            "givenName": "G.", 
            "id": "sg:person.014511356077.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014511356077.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Mercator Ocean (France)", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.436263.6", 
              "name": [
                "Mercator Oc\u00e9an, Ramonville Saint Agne, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ferry", 
            "givenName": "N.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010246311537.21", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010246311537.21"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Japan Meteorological Agency", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.237586.d", 
              "name": [
                "Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Fujii", 
            "givenName": "Y.", 
            "id": "sg:person.016442522445.27", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016442522445.27"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Met Office", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37", 
              "name": [
                "Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Good", 
            "givenName": "S. A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013351111435.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013351111435.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint Agne, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Guinehut", 
            "givenName": "S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015462430577.96", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015462430577.96"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Reading", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b", 
              "name": [
                "University of Reading, Reading, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Haines", 
            "givenName": "K.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01052227550.65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01052227550.65"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Institut de Recherche pour le D\u00e9veloppement", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4399.7", 
              "name": [
                "Mercator Oc\u00e9an, Ramonville Saint Agne, France", 
                "Institut de Recherche pour le D\u00e9veloppement (IRD), Toulouse, France"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hernandez", 
            "givenName": "F.", 
            "id": "sg:person.010627261113.82", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010627261113.82"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Hamburg", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9026.d", 
              "name": [
                "University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "K\u00f6hl", 
            "givenName": "A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07772205710.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07772205710.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Jet Propulsion Lab", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.211367.0", 
              "name": [
                "Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lee", 
            "givenName": "T.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012244526671.16", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012244526671.16"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Met Office", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37", 
              "name": [
                "Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Martin", 
            "givenName": "M. J.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07610146376.81", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07610146376.81"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410348.a", 
              "name": [
                "Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy", 
                "Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Bologna, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Masina", 
            "givenName": "S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012630464123.91", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012630464123.91"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410588.0", 
              "name": [
                "Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Masuda", 
            "givenName": "S.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01072246304.55", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01072246304.55"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Met Office", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37", 
              "name": [
                "Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Peterson", 
            "givenName": "K. A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013112074200.58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013112074200.58"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Euro-Mediterranean Center for Climate Change", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423878.2", 
              "name": [
                "Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Storto", 
            "givenName": "A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.014270422742.10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014270422742.10"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Japan Meteorological Agency", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.237586.d", 
              "name": [
                "Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Toyoda", 
            "givenName": "T.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015303006473.42", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015303006473.42"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Reading", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b", 
              "name": [
                "University of Reading, Reading, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Valdivieso", 
            "givenName": "M.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012610553211.72", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012610553211.72"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "National Aeronautics and Space Administration", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.238252.c", 
              "name": [
                "Global Ocean and Assimilation Office (GMAO), NASA, Washington, DC, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Vernieres", 
            "givenName": "G.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07644730753.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07644730753.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Jet Propulsion Lab", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.211367.0", 
              "name": [
                "Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Wang", 
            "givenName": "O.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015613156545.66", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015613156545.66"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "National Centers for Environmental Prediction", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473673.2", 
              "name": [
                "NCEP/NOAA Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Xue", 
            "givenName": "Y.", 
            "id": "sg:person.013564273266.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013564273266.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50382", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000369107"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl054581", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001750966"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1461", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002468627", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1461"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2013ef000165", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002556192"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2513", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003359600", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl060962", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003797272"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl052952", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003952797"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004103473", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2010jcli3682.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004344161"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2281", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004476122"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004582984", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09043"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nature09043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004582984", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09043"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061456", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004746890"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl051106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005467064"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1229", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007773311", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1229"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20022", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010381072"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-2613-2014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011412688"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.09.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012576339"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062669", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014143182"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo2050", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015023514", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2050"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017262807"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2814.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018460430"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr1978.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019758689"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061844", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020428603"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00591.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021341603"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021772014", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021772014", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr3466.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023584654"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1370:apkfas>2.0.co;2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023673521"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034016", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024562029"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024759108", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024759108", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2063", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026211879"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-13-00294.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027578594"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059473", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027591105"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-11-00542.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027749397"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1254937", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027888125"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2007.2075", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028199853"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-845-2012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028545412"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/98rg02739", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031828369"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-333-2012", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032546269"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2010bams3001.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032678557"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2106", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033404323", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2106"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5194/os-7-151-2011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033607352"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2489.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034259372"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50930", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035176928"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50930", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035176928"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035301089", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl048794", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036388915"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036499239"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-013-1663-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037074544", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1663-6"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047835", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037986956"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo1375", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039789348", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1375"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00752.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044959213"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2290.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045142316"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2347", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045975636"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1175/2010mwr3350.1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048431517"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061881", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048608678"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050443193", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050443193", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050443193", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2150", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050908127", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2150"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl041609", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051427718"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188703", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062461732"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.36", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073067774"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.74", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073067812"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488259"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.68", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488320"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.pp.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488376"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2017-08", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2017-08-01", 
        "description": "Accurate knowledge of the location and magnitude of ocean heat content (OHC) variability and change is essential for understanding the processes that govern decadal variations in surface temperature, quantifying changes in the planetary energy budget, and developing constraints on the transient climate response to external forcings. We present an overview of the temporal and spatial characteristics of OHC variability and change as represented by an ensemble of dynamical and statistical ocean reanalyses (ORAs). Spatial maps of the 0\u2013300 m layer show large regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans where the interannual variability of the ensemble mean exceeds ensemble spread, indicating that OHC variations are well-constrained by the available observations over the period 1993\u20132009. At deeper levels, the ORAs are less well-constrained by observations with the largest differences across the ensemble mostly associated with areas of high eddy kinetic energy, such as the Southern Ocean and boundary current regions. Spatial patterns of OHC change for the period 1997\u20132009 show good agreement in the upper 300 m and are characterized by a strong dipole pattern in the Pacific Ocean. There is less agreement in the patterns of change at deeper levels, potentially linked to differences in the representation of ocean dynamics, such as water mass formation processes. However, the Atlantic and Southern Oceans are regions in which many ORAs show widespread warming below 700 m over the period 1997\u20132009. Annual time series of global and hemispheric OHC change for 0\u2013700 m show the largest spread for the data sparse Southern Hemisphere and a number of ORAs seem to be subject to large initialization \u2018shock\u2019 over the first few years. In agreement with previous studies, a number of ORAs exhibit enhanced ocean heat uptake below 300 and 700 m during the mid-1990s or early 2000s. The ORA ensemble mean (\u00b11 standard deviation) of rolling 5-year trends in full-depth OHC shows a relatively steady heat uptake of approximately 0.9 \u00b1 0.8 W m\u22122 (expressed relative to Earth\u2019s surface area) between 1995 and 2002, which reduces to about 0.2 \u00b1 0.6 W m\u22122 between 2004 and 2006, in qualitative agreement with recent analysis of Earth\u2019s energy imbalance. There is a marked reduction in the ensemble spread of OHC trends below 300 m as the Argo profiling float observations become available in the early 2000s. In general, we suggest that ORAs should be treated with caution when employed to understand past ocean warming trends\u2014especially when considering the deeper ocean where there is little in the way of observational constraints. The current work emphasizes the need to better observe the deep ocean, both for providing observational constraints for future ocean state estimation efforts and also to develop improved models and data assimilation methods.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.2757875", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.6446106", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1049631", 
            "issn": [
              "0930-7575", 
              "1432-0894"
            ], 
            "name": "Climate Dynamics", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "3", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "49"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses", 
        "pagination": "909-930", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "f705be617d851071b1e33603e09476208ffcbc2afd18e5f267fe364b97240d24"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1051858024"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051858024"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:06", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000367_0000000367/records_88217_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00382-015-2801-0"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    468 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      90 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0 schema:about anzsrc-for:04
    2 anzsrc-for:0405
    3 schema:author Na9bbab79415d4eb9b1ea3e5d25481b53
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-013-1663-6
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3
    10 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09043
    11 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1229
    12 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1461
    13 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2106
    14 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2150
    15 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2513
    16 sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo1375
    17 sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo2050
    18 https://doi.org/10.1002/2013ef000165
    19 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059473
    20 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl060962
    21 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061456
    22 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061844
    23 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061881
    24 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062669
    25 https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50382
    26 https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50930
    27 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2063
    28 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2281
    29 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2347
    30 https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20022
    31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.012
    32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019
    33 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.09.005
    34 https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl041609
    35 https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047835
    36 https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl048794
    37 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl051106
    38 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl052952
    39 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl054581
    40 https://doi.org/10.1029/98rg02739
    41 https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034016
    42 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2007.2075
    43 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188703
    44 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1254937
    45 https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1370:apkfas>2.0.co;2
    46 https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr1978.1
    47 https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2290.1
    48 https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2489.1
    49 https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2814.1
    50 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010bams3001.1
    51 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010jcli3682.1
    52 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010mwr3350.1
    53 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-11-00542.1
    54 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00591.1
    55 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00752.1
    56 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-13-00294.1
    57 https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr3466.1
    58 https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-2613-2014
    59 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-7-151-2011
    60 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-333-2012
    61 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-845-2012
    62 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.02
    63 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.68
    64 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.pp.31
    65 https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.36
    66 https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.74
    67 schema:datePublished 2017-08
    68 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-08-01
    69 schema:description Accurate knowledge of the location and magnitude of ocean heat content (OHC) variability and change is essential for understanding the processes that govern decadal variations in surface temperature, quantifying changes in the planetary energy budget, and developing constraints on the transient climate response to external forcings. We present an overview of the temporal and spatial characteristics of OHC variability and change as represented by an ensemble of dynamical and statistical ocean reanalyses (ORAs). Spatial maps of the 0–300 m layer show large regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans where the interannual variability of the ensemble mean exceeds ensemble spread, indicating that OHC variations are well-constrained by the available observations over the period 1993–2009. At deeper levels, the ORAs are less well-constrained by observations with the largest differences across the ensemble mostly associated with areas of high eddy kinetic energy, such as the Southern Ocean and boundary current regions. Spatial patterns of OHC change for the period 1997–2009 show good agreement in the upper 300 m and are characterized by a strong dipole pattern in the Pacific Ocean. There is less agreement in the patterns of change at deeper levels, potentially linked to differences in the representation of ocean dynamics, such as water mass formation processes. However, the Atlantic and Southern Oceans are regions in which many ORAs show widespread warming below 700 m over the period 1997–2009. Annual time series of global and hemispheric OHC change for 0–700 m show the largest spread for the data sparse Southern Hemisphere and a number of ORAs seem to be subject to large initialization ‘shock’ over the first few years. In agreement with previous studies, a number of ORAs exhibit enhanced ocean heat uptake below 300 and 700 m during the mid-1990s or early 2000s. The ORA ensemble mean (±1 standard deviation) of rolling 5-year trends in full-depth OHC shows a relatively steady heat uptake of approximately 0.9 ± 0.8 W m−2 (expressed relative to Earth’s surface area) between 1995 and 2002, which reduces to about 0.2 ± 0.6 W m−2 between 2004 and 2006, in qualitative agreement with recent analysis of Earth’s energy imbalance. There is a marked reduction in the ensemble spread of OHC trends below 300 m as the Argo profiling float observations become available in the early 2000s. In general, we suggest that ORAs should be treated with caution when employed to understand past ocean warming trends—especially when considering the deeper ocean where there is little in the way of observational constraints. The current work emphasizes the need to better observe the deep ocean, both for providing observational constraints for future ocean state estimation efforts and also to develop improved models and data assimilation methods.
    70 schema:genre research_article
    71 schema:inLanguage en
    72 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    73 schema:isPartOf N1addfa1aa4524eeb8151716212a7a261
    74 Nc5eef511e7bd4dbfbadebb45aed397b6
    75 sg:journal.1049631
    76 schema:name Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses
    77 schema:pagination 909-930
    78 schema:productId N24bfe3342522426282e911788b8962cf
    79 N740d9318ad4341d3be0128a09cc8480e
    80 Na2e8e9cb5d4a40179b145c1fbf9d3a72
    81 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051858024
    82 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0
    83 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:06
    84 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    85 schema:sdPublisher Nbc8ef8fbce1b48108fe0e50069a468cb
    86 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00382-015-2801-0
    87 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    88 sgo:sdDataset articles
    89 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    90 N0bbad2e8eea54599acb346003b11e049 rdf:first sg:person.011437730401.54
    91 rdf:rest Nf047127bdef040439afa6a2363724b7d
    92 N12acecab21d0465c92bd09376ff3b57c rdf:first sg:person.015613156545.66
    93 rdf:rest N8ed4f24c35fe462e90be8041c4837e6c
    94 N1addfa1aa4524eeb8151716212a7a261 schema:issueNumber 3
    95 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    96 N24bfe3342522426282e911788b8962cf schema:name dimensions_id
    97 schema:value pub.1051858024
    98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    99 N3bd0ca3e719e442eb47c329902f849b6 rdf:first sg:person.07610146376.81
    100 rdf:rest Nbdc8a830322e4f6cbc5822974a3a1f41
    101 N3de3e792753d43d596aa4180e11c3ce7 rdf:first sg:person.014511356077.01
    102 rdf:rest Nff01abb419d243a18cf1922e6e885ab4
    103 N451e45bbd3eb4f91ace871a510f1a0b9 rdf:first sg:person.07772205710.29
    104 rdf:rest Nf9eb8859ae3944e597af14859ae60f19
    105 N5b3ce569da5947c0898fb35b2d8f3123 rdf:first sg:person.013001671735.47
    106 rdf:rest N3de3e792753d43d596aa4180e11c3ce7
    107 N5fd2738aa33443b6a55452f3105222e8 rdf:first sg:person.016442522445.27
    108 rdf:rest Na136186f98f74b4296fa175b29211e45
    109 N63e4f2a34d61494cadd65a75e98aa28a rdf:first sg:person.013112074200.58
    110 rdf:rest Nafa0652769084cac9cd64b1874046529
    111 N6bb5558e90f24d1d93710c50b51a20ee rdf:first sg:person.01052227550.65
    112 rdf:rest Nf9b9612107504cbaa444fa3bd36d2a0c
    113 N740d9318ad4341d3be0128a09cc8480e schema:name readcube_id
    114 schema:value f705be617d851071b1e33603e09476208ffcbc2afd18e5f267fe364b97240d24
    115 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    116 N8ed4f24c35fe462e90be8041c4837e6c rdf:first sg:person.013564273266.13
    117 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    118 N994cbbaafa5a4555a33e4e27147b8ca0 rdf:first sg:person.015462430577.96
    119 rdf:rest N6bb5558e90f24d1d93710c50b51a20ee
    120 Na136186f98f74b4296fa175b29211e45 rdf:first sg:person.013351111435.54
    121 rdf:rest N994cbbaafa5a4555a33e4e27147b8ca0
    122 Na2e8e9cb5d4a40179b145c1fbf9d3a72 schema:name doi
    123 schema:value 10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0
    124 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    125 Na9bbab79415d4eb9b1ea3e5d25481b53 rdf:first sg:person.016317430671.85
    126 rdf:rest N0bbad2e8eea54599acb346003b11e049
    127 Nafa0652769084cac9cd64b1874046529 rdf:first sg:person.014270422742.10
    128 rdf:rest Nb5d3c2dd004349b0bce4fcb3b6bf374c
    129 Nb597657552134ddd9d97b2e44fd9c573 rdf:first sg:person.07644730753.13
    130 rdf:rest N12acecab21d0465c92bd09376ff3b57c
    131 Nb5d3c2dd004349b0bce4fcb3b6bf374c rdf:first sg:person.015303006473.42
    132 rdf:rest Nfc5e66518e084f3d9916926de8d0592c
    133 Nbc8ef8fbce1b48108fe0e50069a468cb schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    134 rdf:type schema:Organization
    135 Nbdc8a830322e4f6cbc5822974a3a1f41 rdf:first sg:person.012630464123.91
    136 rdf:rest Nce573e178627439ebcd72856a24c2d6b
    137 Nc5eef511e7bd4dbfbadebb45aed397b6 schema:volumeNumber 49
    138 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    139 Ncaabe4ea77be47be82f7879315b815dd schema:name CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint Agne, France
    140 rdf:type schema:Organization
    141 Nce573e178627439ebcd72856a24c2d6b rdf:first sg:person.01072246304.55
    142 rdf:rest N63e4f2a34d61494cadd65a75e98aa28a
    143 Nf047127bdef040439afa6a2363724b7d rdf:first sg:person.010507005427.12
    144 rdf:rest N5b3ce569da5947c0898fb35b2d8f3123
    145 Nf9b9612107504cbaa444fa3bd36d2a0c rdf:first sg:person.010627261113.82
    146 rdf:rest N451e45bbd3eb4f91ace871a510f1a0b9
    147 Nf9eb8859ae3944e597af14859ae60f19 rdf:first sg:person.012244526671.16
    148 rdf:rest N3bd0ca3e719e442eb47c329902f849b6
    149 Nfc5e66518e084f3d9916926de8d0592c rdf:first sg:person.012610553211.72
    150 rdf:rest Nb597657552134ddd9d97b2e44fd9c573
    151 Nff01abb419d243a18cf1922e6e885ab4 rdf:first sg:person.010246311537.21
    152 rdf:rest N5fd2738aa33443b6a55452f3105222e8
    153 anzsrc-for:04 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    154 schema:name Earth Sciences
    155 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    156 anzsrc-for:0405 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    157 schema:name Oceanography
    158 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    159 sg:grant.2757875 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0
    160 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    161 sg:grant.6446106 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0
    162 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    163 sg:journal.1049631 schema:issn 0930-7575
    164 1432-0894
    165 schema:name Climate Dynamics
    166 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    167 sg:person.010246311537.21 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.436263.6
    168 schema:familyName Ferry
    169 schema:givenName N.
    170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010246311537.21
    171 rdf:type schema:Person
    172 sg:person.010507005427.12 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42781.38
    173 schema:familyName Balmaseda
    174 schema:givenName M.
    175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010507005427.12
    176 rdf:type schema:Person
    177 sg:person.01052227550.65 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b
    178 schema:familyName Haines
    179 schema:givenName K.
    180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01052227550.65
    181 rdf:type schema:Person
    182 sg:person.010627261113.82 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4399.7
    183 schema:familyName Hernandez
    184 schema:givenName F.
    185 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010627261113.82
    186 rdf:type schema:Person
    187 sg:person.01072246304.55 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410588.0
    188 schema:familyName Masuda
    189 schema:givenName S.
    190 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01072246304.55
    191 rdf:type schema:Person
    192 sg:person.011437730401.54 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37
    193 schema:familyName Roberts
    194 schema:givenName C. D.
    195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011437730401.54
    196 rdf:type schema:Person
    197 sg:person.012244526671.16 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.211367.0
    198 schema:familyName Lee
    199 schema:givenName T.
    200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012244526671.16
    201 rdf:type schema:Person
    202 sg:person.012610553211.72 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b
    203 schema:familyName Valdivieso
    204 schema:givenName M.
    205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012610553211.72
    206 rdf:type schema:Person
    207 sg:person.012630464123.91 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410348.a
    208 schema:familyName Masina
    209 schema:givenName S.
    210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012630464123.91
    211 rdf:type schema:Person
    212 sg:person.013001671735.47 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16750.35
    213 schema:familyName Chang
    214 schema:givenName Y.-S.
    215 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013001671735.47
    216 rdf:type schema:Person
    217 sg:person.013112074200.58 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37
    218 schema:familyName Peterson
    219 schema:givenName K. A.
    220 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013112074200.58
    221 rdf:type schema:Person
    222 sg:person.013351111435.54 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37
    223 schema:familyName Good
    224 schema:givenName S. A.
    225 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013351111435.54
    226 rdf:type schema:Person
    227 sg:person.013564273266.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473673.2
    228 schema:familyName Xue
    229 schema:givenName Y.
    230 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013564273266.13
    231 rdf:type schema:Person
    232 sg:person.014270422742.10 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423878.2
    233 schema:familyName Storto
    234 schema:givenName A.
    235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014270422742.10
    236 rdf:type schema:Person
    237 sg:person.014511356077.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.164295.d
    238 schema:familyName Chepurin
    239 schema:givenName G.
    240 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014511356077.01
    241 rdf:type schema:Person
    242 sg:person.015303006473.42 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.237586.d
    243 schema:familyName Toyoda
    244 schema:givenName T.
    245 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015303006473.42
    246 rdf:type schema:Person
    247 sg:person.015462430577.96 schema:affiliation Ncaabe4ea77be47be82f7879315b815dd
    248 schema:familyName Guinehut
    249 schema:givenName S.
    250 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015462430577.96
    251 rdf:type schema:Person
    252 sg:person.015613156545.66 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.211367.0
    253 schema:familyName Wang
    254 schema:givenName O.
    255 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015613156545.66
    256 rdf:type schema:Person
    257 sg:person.016317430671.85 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37
    258 schema:familyName Palmer
    259 schema:givenName M. D.
    260 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016317430671.85
    261 rdf:type schema:Person
    262 sg:person.016442522445.27 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.237586.d
    263 schema:familyName Fujii
    264 schema:givenName Y.
    265 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016442522445.27
    266 rdf:type schema:Person
    267 sg:person.07610146376.81 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37
    268 schema:familyName Martin
    269 schema:givenName M. J.
    270 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07610146376.81
    271 rdf:type schema:Person
    272 sg:person.07644730753.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.238252.c
    273 schema:familyName Vernieres
    274 schema:givenName G.
    275 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07644730753.13
    276 rdf:type schema:Person
    277 sg:person.07772205710.29 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9026.d
    278 schema:familyName Köhl
    279 schema:givenName A.
    280 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07772205710.29
    281 rdf:type schema:Person
    282 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035301089
    283 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0954-4
    284 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    285 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004103473
    286 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2
    287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    288 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-013-1663-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037074544
    289 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1663-6
    290 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    291 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024759108
    292 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7
    293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    294 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021772014
    295 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2780-1
    296 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    297 sg:pub.10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050443193
    298 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2843-3
    299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    300 sg:pub.10.1038/nature09043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004582984
    301 https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09043
    302 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    303 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1229 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007773311
    304 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1229
    305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    306 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate1461 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002468627
    307 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1461
    308 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    309 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033404323
    310 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2106
    311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    312 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2150 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050908127
    313 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2150
    314 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    315 sg:pub.10.1038/nclimate2513 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003359600
    316 https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2513
    317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    318 sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo1375 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039789348
    319 https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1375
    320 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    321 sg:pub.10.1038/ngeo2050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015023514
    322 https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2050
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 https://doi.org/10.1002/2013ef000165 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002556192
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059473 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027591105
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl060962 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003797272
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061456 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004746890
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061844 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020428603
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl061881 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048608678
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl062669 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014143182
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50382 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000369107
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50930 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035176928
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2063 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026211879
    343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    344 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2281 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004476122
    345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    346 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2347 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045975636
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010381072
    349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    350 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017262807
    351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    352 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036499239
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.09.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012576339
    355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    356 https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl041609 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051427718
    357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    358 https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047835 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037986956
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl048794 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036388915
    361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    362 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl051106 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005467064
    363 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    364 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl052952 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003952797
    365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    366 https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gl054581 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001750966
    367 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    368 https://doi.org/10.1029/98rg02739 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031828369
    369 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    370 https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024562029
    371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    372 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2007.2075 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028199853
    373 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    374 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188703 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062461732
    375 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    376 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1254937 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027888125
    377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    378 https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1370:apkfas>2.0.co;2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023673521
    379 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    380 https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr1978.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019758689
    381 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    382 https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2290.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045142316
    383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    384 https://doi.org/10.1175/2008jcli2489.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034259372
    385 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    386 https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli2814.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018460430
    387 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    388 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010bams3001.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032678557
    389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    390 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010jcli3682.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004344161
    391 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    392 https://doi.org/10.1175/2010mwr3350.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048431517
    393 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    394 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-11-00542.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027749397
    395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    396 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00591.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021341603
    397 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    398 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-12-00752.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044959213
    399 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    400 https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-13-00294.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027578594
    401 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    402 https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr3466.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023584654
    403 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    404 https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-2613-2014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011412688
    405 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    406 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-7-151-2011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033607352
    407 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    408 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-333-2012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032546269
    409 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    410 https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-845-2012 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028545412
    411 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    412 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.02 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488259
    413 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    414 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.cwp.68 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488320
    415 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    416 https://doi.org/10.5270/oceanobs09.pp.31 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1099488376
    417 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    418 https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.36 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073067774
    419 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    420 https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.74 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073067812
    421 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    422 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.164295.d schema:alternateName University of Maryland, College Park
    423 schema:name University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
    424 rdf:type schema:Organization
    425 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.16750.35 schema:alternateName Princeton University
    426 schema:name Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    427 rdf:type schema:Organization
    428 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.17100.37 schema:alternateName Met Office
    429 schema:name Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK
    430 rdf:type schema:Organization
    431 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.211367.0 schema:alternateName Jet Propulsion Lab
    432 schema:name Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
    433 rdf:type schema:Organization
    434 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.237586.d schema:alternateName Japan Meteorological Agency
    435 schema:name Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan Meteorological Agency, Tsukuba, Japan
    436 rdf:type schema:Organization
    437 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.238252.c schema:alternateName National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    438 schema:name Global Ocean and Assimilation Office (GMAO), NASA, Washington, DC, USA
    439 rdf:type schema:Organization
    440 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410348.a schema:alternateName National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
    441 schema:name Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy
    442 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Bologna, Italy
    443 rdf:type schema:Organization
    444 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.410588.0 schema:alternateName Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology
    445 schema:name Research and Development Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
    446 rdf:type schema:Organization
    447 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.423878.2 schema:alternateName Euro-Mediterranean Center for Climate Change
    448 schema:name Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy
    449 rdf:type schema:Organization
    450 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.42781.38 schema:alternateName European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
    451 schema:name European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), Reading, UK
    452 rdf:type schema:Organization
    453 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.436263.6 schema:alternateName Mercator Ocean (France)
    454 schema:name Mercator Océan, Ramonville Saint Agne, France
    455 rdf:type schema:Organization
    456 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.4399.7 schema:alternateName Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
    457 schema:name Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Toulouse, France
    458 Mercator Océan, Ramonville Saint Agne, France
    459 rdf:type schema:Organization
    460 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.473673.2 schema:alternateName National Centers for Environmental Prediction
    461 schema:name NCEP/NOAA Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, USA
    462 rdf:type schema:Organization
    463 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9026.d schema:alternateName University of Hamburg
    464 schema:name University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    465 rdf:type schema:Organization
    466 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9435.b schema:alternateName University of Reading
    467 schema:name University of Reading, Reading, UK
    468 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...