Substrate specificity of chlorophenoxyalkanoic acid-degrading bacteria is not dependent upon phylogenetically related tfdA gene types View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-06

AUTHORS

Christopher W. Smejkal, Tatiana Vallaeys, Sara K. Burton, Hilary M. Lappin-Scott

ABSTRACT

. The phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides constitute a group of chemically related molecules that have been widely used for over 50 years. A range of bacteria have been selected from various locations for their ability to degrade these compounds. Previously reported strains able to utilise 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) include, Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, Burkholderia sp. RASC and Variovorax paradoxus TV1 and Sphingomonas sp. AW5 able to utilise 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). In addition a novel set of mecoprop-degrading strains including Alcaligenes denitrificans, Alcaligenes sp. CS1 and Ralstonia sp. CS2 are here described. It has been reported recently that TfdA enzymes, initially reported to have a role in 2,4-D catabolism are also involved in the first-step cleavage of related phenoxyalkanoate herbicides. However, a diversity of tfdA gene sequences have been reported. We relate the tfdA gene type to the metabolic ability of these strains. The tfdA-like genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction amplification using a set of specific tfdA primers. Degradation ability was observed via phenol production from a range of unsubstituted and substituted phenoxyalkanoics including, 2,4-D, 2-methyl 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), racemic mecoprop, (R)-mecoprop, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (racemic 2,4-DP), 2,4,5-T, 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxybutyric acid (MCPB) and phenoxyacetate. Mecoprop-degrading strains showed partial tfdA sequences identical to the one described for V. paradoxus TV1 (a strain isolated on 2,4-D). However, substrate specificity was not identical as V. paradoxus exhibited greatest activity towards 2,4-D and MCPA only, whereas the mecoprop-degrading strains showed intense activity towards 2,4-D, MCPA, racemic mecoprop and (R)-mecoprop as substrates. However, Sphingomonas sp. AW5 which has been shown to carry a very different tfdA-like gene was the only strain to utilise the phenoxybutyric acid MCPB as a sole carbon source. In this study, we thus demonstrate that sequence diversity is not related to substrate specificity within the tfdA-like gene family. However, phylogenetically unrelated sequences may govern substrate specific activity. More... »

PAGES

507-513

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003740100360

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003740100360

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041890836


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