Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-08

AUTHORS

William K. Fitt, Barbara E. Brown, Mark E. Warner, Richard P. Dunne

ABSTRACT

. 'It should be clear that the upper temperature limit for life cannot be accurately defined' (Schmidt-Nielsen 1996). The thermal physiology of zooxanthellate reef corals is reviewed in this paper in the context of organismal and biochemical responses occurring during coral bleaching, with emphasis on methods of detection and interpretation of animal and algal symbiont stress. Coral bleaching, as presently defined in the literature, is a highly subjective term used to describe a variety of conditions pertaining to low symbiont densities in the coral–algal complex, including response to thermal stress. Three general types of high-temperature bleaching are defined: physiological bleaching, which may or may not include higher-than-normal temperature responses; algal-stress bleaching, involving dysfunction of symbiotic algae at high light and/or high temperatures; and animal-stress bleaching, where coral cells containing symbiotic algae are shed from the gastrodermal layer of cells. Since none of these methods of bleaching is mutually exclusive, a combination of intrusive and non-intrusive techniques is necessary to determine which mechanisms of symbiont loss are occurring. While quantification of symbiont densities, algal pigments, and coral tissue biomass provide unambiguous evidence of bleaching severity, measurements of physiological and biochemical degradation offer additional correlative evidence of temperature stress. Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry has emerged as an easy and relatively inexpensive non-invasive technique for monitoring symbiotic algal function both in situ and in the laboratory, when proper assumptions and interpretations are made. The roles of global warming, water quality, acclimation/adaptation processes, and relation to coral disease and reef heterogeneity are also discussed. A thorough understanding of the organismal responses occurring during bleaching will help explain changes in coral populations and in the coral reef community, and perhaps assist in predicting the future of reef corals and coral reefs during the next century of global climate change. More... »

PAGES

51-65

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003380100146

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041658678


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0602", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Ecology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0606", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0607", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Plant Biology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0699", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Other Biological Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.213876.9", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Fitt", 
        "givenName": "William K.", 
        "id": "sg:person.013300343703.27", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013300343703.27"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1006.7", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Brown", 
        "givenName": "Barbara E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016115600267.04", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016115600267.04"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.213876.9", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Warner", 
        "givenName": "Mark E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01347042221.83", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347042221.83"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.1006.7", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Dunne", 
        "givenName": "Richard P.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016443166713.41", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016443166713.41"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2001-08", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2001-08-01", 
    "description": "Abstract. 'It should be clear that the upper temperature limit for life cannot be accurately defined' (Schmidt-Nielsen 1996). The thermal physiology of zooxanthellate reef corals is reviewed in this paper in the context of organismal and biochemical responses occurring during coral bleaching, with emphasis on methods of detection and interpretation of animal and algal symbiont stress. Coral bleaching, as presently defined in the literature, is a highly subjective term used to describe a variety of conditions pertaining to low symbiont densities in the coral\u2013algal complex, including response to thermal stress. Three general types of high-temperature bleaching are defined: physiological bleaching, which may or may not include higher-than-normal temperature responses; algal-stress bleaching, involving dysfunction of symbiotic algae at high light and/or high temperatures; and animal-stress bleaching, where coral cells containing symbiotic algae are shed from the gastrodermal layer of cells. Since none of these methods of bleaching is mutually exclusive, a combination of intrusive and non-intrusive techniques is necessary to determine which mechanisms of symbiont loss are occurring. While quantification of symbiont densities, algal pigments, and coral tissue biomass provide unambiguous evidence of bleaching severity, measurements of physiological and biochemical degradation offer additional correlative evidence of temperature stress. Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry has emerged as an easy and relatively inexpensive non-invasive technique for monitoring symbiotic algal function both in situ and in the laboratory, when proper assumptions and interpretations are made. The roles of global warming, water quality, acclimation/adaptation processes, and relation to coral disease and reef heterogeneity are also discussed. A thorough understanding of the organismal responses occurring during bleaching will help explain changes in coral populations and in the coral reef community, and perhaps assist in predicting the future of reef corals and coral reefs during the next century of global climate change.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s003380100146", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1032651", 
        "issn": [
          "0722-4028", 
          "1432-0975"
        ], 
        "name": "Coral Reefs", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "20"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "symbiotic algae", 
      "reef corals", 
      "coral bleaching", 
      "symbiont density", 
      "zooxanthellate reef corals", 
      "low symbiont densities", 
      "coral tissue biomass", 
      "coral reef communities", 
      "thermal tolerance limits", 
      "additional correlative evidence", 
      "coral populations", 
      "coral cells", 
      "coral diseases", 
      "symbiont loss", 
      "organismal responses", 
      "reef communities", 
      "tropical corals", 
      "coral reefs", 
      "high light", 
      "gastrodermal layer", 
      "reef heterogeneity", 
      "thermal physiology", 
      "tissue biomass", 
      "temperature stress", 
      "correlative evidence", 
      "corals", 
      "global climate change", 
      "algal pigments", 
      "algae", 
      "biochemical responses", 
      "method of bleaching", 
      "upper temperature limit", 
      "climate change", 
      "interpretation of animal", 
      "cells", 
      "global warming", 
      "reefs", 
      "water quality", 
      "biochemical degradation", 
      "tolerance limits", 
      "bleaching", 
      "temperature response", 
      "stress", 
      "next century", 
      "physiology", 
      "biomass", 
      "response", 
      "pigments", 
      "thermal thresholds", 
      "adaptation process", 
      "thorough understanding", 
      "variety of conditions", 
      "complexes", 
      "unambiguous evidence", 
      "thermal stress", 
      "warming", 
      "fluorometry", 
      "degradation", 
      "mechanism", 
      "role", 
      "evidence", 
      "animals", 
      "population", 
      "community", 
      "method of detection", 
      "changes", 
      "function", 
      "heterogeneity", 
      "understanding", 
      "variety", 
      "temperature limit", 
      "high temperature", 
      "loss", 
      "light", 
      "density", 
      "types", 
      "disease", 
      "quantification", 
      "situ", 
      "process", 
      "laboratory", 
      "combination", 
      "conditions", 
      "dysfunction", 
      "future", 
      "detection", 
      "interpretation", 
      "century", 
      "context", 
      "emphasis", 
      "general type", 
      "temperature", 
      "relation", 
      "method", 
      "technique", 
      "non-invasive technique", 
      "life", 
      "quality", 
      "limit", 
      "layer", 
      "severity", 
      "threshold", 
      "terms", 
      "assumption", 
      "measurements", 
      "literature", 
      "non-intrusive technique", 
      "subjective terms", 
      "paper", 
      "proper assumptions", 
      "algal symbiont stress", 
      "symbiont stress", 
      "coral\u2013algal complex", 
      "high-temperature bleaching", 
      "physiological bleaching", 
      "normal temperature responses", 
      "algal-stress bleaching", 
      "animal-stress bleaching", 
      "Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry", 
      "inexpensive non-invasive technique", 
      "symbiotic algal function", 
      "algal function", 
      "acclimation/adaptation processes"
    ], 
    "name": "Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals", 
    "pagination": "51-65", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1041658678"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s003380100146"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041658678"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:11", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_336.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003380100146'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003380100146'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003380100146'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s003380100146'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

217 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      152 URIs      141 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s003380100146 schema:about anzsrc-for:06
2 anzsrc-for:0602
3 anzsrc-for:0606
4 anzsrc-for:0607
5 anzsrc-for:0699
6 schema:author N4b3d35b6b06e4cec8e0d17599e050ee0
7 schema:datePublished 2001-08
8 schema:datePublishedReg 2001-08-01
9 schema:description Abstract. 'It should be clear that the upper temperature limit for life cannot be accurately defined' (Schmidt-Nielsen 1996). The thermal physiology of zooxanthellate reef corals is reviewed in this paper in the context of organismal and biochemical responses occurring during coral bleaching, with emphasis on methods of detection and interpretation of animal and algal symbiont stress. Coral bleaching, as presently defined in the literature, is a highly subjective term used to describe a variety of conditions pertaining to low symbiont densities in the coral–algal complex, including response to thermal stress. Three general types of high-temperature bleaching are defined: physiological bleaching, which may or may not include higher-than-normal temperature responses; algal-stress bleaching, involving dysfunction of symbiotic algae at high light and/or high temperatures; and animal-stress bleaching, where coral cells containing symbiotic algae are shed from the gastrodermal layer of cells. Since none of these methods of bleaching is mutually exclusive, a combination of intrusive and non-intrusive techniques is necessary to determine which mechanisms of symbiont loss are occurring. While quantification of symbiont densities, algal pigments, and coral tissue biomass provide unambiguous evidence of bleaching severity, measurements of physiological and biochemical degradation offer additional correlative evidence of temperature stress. Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry has emerged as an easy and relatively inexpensive non-invasive technique for monitoring symbiotic algal function both in situ and in the laboratory, when proper assumptions and interpretations are made. The roles of global warming, water quality, acclimation/adaptation processes, and relation to coral disease and reef heterogeneity are also discussed. A thorough understanding of the organismal responses occurring during bleaching will help explain changes in coral populations and in the coral reef community, and perhaps assist in predicting the future of reef corals and coral reefs during the next century of global climate change.
10 schema:genre article
11 schema:inLanguage en
12 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
13 schema:isPartOf N07c20f468b724f149cbad8a133cc068b
14 N3233493864e949b384c5a415066d031e
15 sg:journal.1032651
16 schema:keywords Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry
17 acclimation/adaptation processes
18 adaptation process
19 additional correlative evidence
20 algae
21 algal function
22 algal pigments
23 algal symbiont stress
24 algal-stress bleaching
25 animal-stress bleaching
26 animals
27 assumption
28 biochemical degradation
29 biochemical responses
30 biomass
31 bleaching
32 cells
33 century
34 changes
35 climate change
36 combination
37 community
38 complexes
39 conditions
40 context
41 coral bleaching
42 coral cells
43 coral diseases
44 coral populations
45 coral reef communities
46 coral reefs
47 coral tissue biomass
48 corals
49 coral–algal complex
50 correlative evidence
51 degradation
52 density
53 detection
54 disease
55 dysfunction
56 emphasis
57 evidence
58 fluorometry
59 function
60 future
61 gastrodermal layer
62 general type
63 global climate change
64 global warming
65 heterogeneity
66 high light
67 high temperature
68 high-temperature bleaching
69 inexpensive non-invasive technique
70 interpretation
71 interpretation of animal
72 laboratory
73 layer
74 life
75 light
76 limit
77 literature
78 loss
79 low symbiont densities
80 measurements
81 mechanism
82 method
83 method of bleaching
84 method of detection
85 next century
86 non-intrusive technique
87 non-invasive technique
88 normal temperature responses
89 organismal responses
90 paper
91 physiological bleaching
92 physiology
93 pigments
94 population
95 process
96 proper assumptions
97 quality
98 quantification
99 reef communities
100 reef corals
101 reef heterogeneity
102 reefs
103 relation
104 response
105 role
106 severity
107 situ
108 stress
109 subjective terms
110 symbiont density
111 symbiont loss
112 symbiont stress
113 symbiotic algae
114 symbiotic algal function
115 technique
116 temperature
117 temperature limit
118 temperature response
119 temperature stress
120 terms
121 thermal physiology
122 thermal stress
123 thermal thresholds
124 thermal tolerance limits
125 thorough understanding
126 threshold
127 tissue biomass
128 tolerance limits
129 tropical corals
130 types
131 unambiguous evidence
132 understanding
133 upper temperature limit
134 variety
135 variety of conditions
136 warming
137 water quality
138 zooxanthellate reef corals
139 schema:name Coral bleaching: interpretation of thermal tolerance limits and thermal thresholds in tropical corals
140 schema:pagination 51-65
141 schema:productId N201eaaf4922640f4a77cdd9af878e0dc
142 N904f7bf1a48c426b89e1cc83e40b240c
143 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041658678
144 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146
145 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:11
146 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
147 schema:sdPublisher Na5edead8168b46fda2651efa6e0fe3cc
148 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146
149 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
150 sgo:sdDataset articles
151 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
152 N07c20f468b724f149cbad8a133cc068b schema:issueNumber 1
153 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
154 N201eaaf4922640f4a77cdd9af878e0dc schema:name doi
155 schema:value 10.1007/s003380100146
156 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
157 N3233493864e949b384c5a415066d031e schema:volumeNumber 20
158 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
159 N4b3d35b6b06e4cec8e0d17599e050ee0 rdf:first sg:person.013300343703.27
160 rdf:rest N8e6309db1dbd4168822d721e047e7da0
161 N8e6309db1dbd4168822d721e047e7da0 rdf:first sg:person.016115600267.04
162 rdf:rest Na05e9031d8534e7eb09ee6da84897940
163 N904f7bf1a48c426b89e1cc83e40b240c schema:name dimensions_id
164 schema:value pub.1041658678
165 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
166 Na05e9031d8534e7eb09ee6da84897940 rdf:first sg:person.01347042221.83
167 rdf:rest Ne5654569b28f4124b6d9985af5548158
168 Na5edead8168b46fda2651efa6e0fe3cc schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
169 rdf:type schema:Organization
170 Ne5654569b28f4124b6d9985af5548158 rdf:first sg:person.016443166713.41
171 rdf:rest rdf:nil
172 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
173 schema:name Biological Sciences
174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
175 anzsrc-for:0602 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
176 schema:name Ecology
177 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
178 anzsrc-for:0606 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
179 schema:name Physiology
180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
181 anzsrc-for:0607 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
182 schema:name Plant Biology
183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
184 anzsrc-for:0699 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
185 schema:name Other Biological Sciences
186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
187 sg:journal.1032651 schema:issn 0722-4028
188 1432-0975
189 schema:name Coral Reefs
190 schema:publisher Springer Nature
191 rdf:type schema:Periodical
192 sg:person.013300343703.27 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.213876.9
193 schema:familyName Fitt
194 schema:givenName William K.
195 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013300343703.27
196 rdf:type schema:Person
197 sg:person.01347042221.83 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.213876.9
198 schema:familyName Warner
199 schema:givenName Mark E.
200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347042221.83
201 rdf:type schema:Person
202 sg:person.016115600267.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1006.7
203 schema:familyName Brown
204 schema:givenName Barbara E.
205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016115600267.04
206 rdf:type schema:Person
207 sg:person.016443166713.41 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.1006.7
208 schema:familyName Dunne
209 schema:givenName Richard P.
210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016443166713.41
211 rdf:type schema:Person
212 grid-institutes:grid.1006.7 schema:alternateName Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
213 schema:name Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
214 rdf:type schema:Organization
215 grid-institutes:grid.213876.9 schema:alternateName Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
216 schema:name Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
217 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...