Coral bleaching and recovery from 2016 to 2017 at East and West Flower Garden Banks, Gulf of Mexico View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-03-16

AUTHORS

Michelle A. Johnston, Emma L. Hickerson, Marissa F. Nuttall, Raven D. Blakeway, Travis K. Sterne, Ryan J. Eckert, George P. Schmahl

ABSTRACT

East Flower Garden Bank (EFGB) and West Flower Garden Bank (WFGB), part of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, support tropical coral reefs that exhibit over 50% living coral cover. These reefs have been monitored annually since 1989, and in 2016 were exposed to higher than normal seawater temperatures leading to a severe bleaching event. Corals at EFGB and WFGB showed no signs of bleaching until September 2016, occurring later in the year compared to other reefs in the Caribbean region. Coral bleaching and subsequent recovery at each bank were documented through a time series of repetitive photographs within previously established long-term monitoring stations. Preceding the event, mean live coral cover within monitoring stations was collectively 64 ± 2%. Prior to signs of bleaching from July to September 2016, seawater temperatures on the reef were above 30 °C for a total of 36 d at EFGB and 21 d at WFGB. By October 2016, 67 ± 5% of the coral cover within EFGB monitoring stations and 25 ± 3% within WFGB monitoring stations exhibited signs of bleaching or paling stress, with dissimilarities in the amount of bleaching most likely due to significant differences in thermal profiles between banks. Significantly increasing long-term trends for daily mean seawater temperature indicate that temperatures on the banks have become warmer over time, and calculated bleaching threshold curves suggest that more than 50 d above 29.5 °C would initiate a bleaching year at EFGB and WFGB. Even though recovery within monitoring stations at both banks was documented with no significant declines in mean coral cover from 2016 to 2017 (64% and 62%, respectively), it is likely FGBNMS will be subject to additional and more frequent bleaching events in the future as ocean temperatures continue to rise. More... »

PAGES

1-13

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00338-019-01788-7

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00338-019-01788-7

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112829558


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