Direct and indirect effects of high pCO2 on algal grazing by coral reef herbivores from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2013-07-26

AUTHORS

E. M. Borell, M. Steinke, M. Fine

ABSTRACT

Grazing on marine macroalgae is a key structuring process for coral reef communities. However, ocean acidification from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is predicted to adversely affect many marine animals, while seaweed communities may benefit and prosper. We tested how exposure to different pCO2 (400, 1,800 and 4,000 μatm) may affect grazing on the green alga Ulva lactuca by herbivorous fish and sea urchins from the coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea), either directly, by changing herbivore behaviour, or indirectly via changes in algal palatability. We also determined the effects of pCO2 on algal tissue concentrations of protein and the grazing-deterrent secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Grazing preferences and overall consumption were tested in a series of multiple-choice feeding experiments in the laboratory and in situ following exposure for 14 d (algae) and 28 d (herbivores). 4,000 μatm had a significant effect on the biochemical composition and palatability of U. lactuca. No effects were observed at 1,800 relative to 400 μatm (control). Exposure of U. lactuca to 4,000 μatm resulted in a significant decrease in protein and increase in DMSP concentration. This coincided with a reduced preference for these algae by the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla and different herbivorous fish species in situ (Acanthuridae, Siganidae and Pomacanthidae). No feeding preferences were observed for the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus under laboratory conditions. Exposure to elevated pCO2 had no direct effect on the overall algal consumption by T. gratilla and S. rivulatus. Our results show that CO2 has the potential to alter algal palatability to different herbivores which could have important implications for algal abundance and coral community structure. The fact that pCO2 effects were observed only at a pCO2 of 4,000 μatm, however, indicates that algal-grazer interactions may be resistant to predicted pCO2 concentrations in the near future. More... »

PAGES

937-947

References to SciGraph publications

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  • 1996. DMSP Lyase in Marine Macro- and Microalgae in BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF DMSP AND RELATED SULFONIUM COMPOUNDS
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  • 2012-03-09. Effect of elevated pCO2 on the production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulphide (DMS) in two species of Ulva (Chlorophyceae) in BIOGEOCHEMISTRY
  • 1973-10. The natural food of the rabbitfish Siganus oramin and S. striolata in MARINE BIOLOGY
  • 2010-02-05. Impact of near-future ocean acidification on echinoderms in ECOTOXICOLOGY
  • 2001-05. Non-photosynthetic enhancement of growth by high CO2 level in the nitrophilic seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyta) in PLANTA
  • 1998-10. On the statistical analysis of multiple-choice feeding preference experiments in OECOLOGIA
  • 1997-06. The ecology and evolution of seaweed-herbivore interactions on coral reefs in CORAL REEFS
  • 2006-09-08. Effects of long-term acclimation to environmental hypercapnia on extracellular acid–base status and metabolic capacity in Mediterranean fish Sparus aurata in MARINE BIOLOGY
  • 2012-03-02. Interaction of herbivory and seasonality on the dynamics of Caribbean macroalgae in CORAL REEFS
  • 1981-06. Quantitative distribution of herbivorous reef fishes in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) in MARINE BIOLOGY
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    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00338-013-1066-5

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