The potential role of Antarctic krill faecal pellets in efficient carbon export at the marginal ice zone of the South ... View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-04-13

AUTHORS

A. Belcher, G. A. Tarling, C. Manno, A. Atkinson, P. Ward, G. Skaret, S. Fielding, S. A. Henson, R. Sanders

ABSTRACT

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) play a central role in the food web of the Southern Ocean, forming a link between primary production and large predators. Krill produce large, faecal pellets (FP) which can form a large component of mesopelagic particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes. However, the patchy distribution of krill swarms, highly variable pellet composition, and variable sinking and attenuation rates means that these episodic, but potentially large, carbon fluxes are difficult to sample or model. We measured particle flux and type using Marine Snow Catchers (MSC) in the marginal ice zone near the South Orkneys, Antarctica. Krill FP were the dominant component of the POC flux in the upper 200 m (typically 60–85%). FP sinking velocities measured onboard were highly variable (15–507 m d−1) but overall high, with mean equivalent velocities of 172, 267, and 161 m d−1 at our three stations. The high numbers of krill FP sinking through the mesopelagic suggest that krill FP can be transferred efficiently and/or that rates of krill FP production are high. We compared our direct MSC-derived estimates of krill FP POC flux (33–154 mg C m−2 d−1) and attenuation to estimates of krill FP production based on previous measurements of krill density and literature FP egestion rates, and estimated net krill FP attenuation rates in the upper mesopelagic. Calculated attenuation rates are sensitive to krill densities in the overlying water column but suggest that krill FP could be transferred efficiently through the upper mesopelagic, and, in agreement with our MSC attenuation estimates, could make large contributions to bathypelagic POC fluxes. Our study contrasts with some others which suggest rapid FP attenuation, highlighting the need for further work to constrain attenuation rates and assess how important the contribution of Antarctic krill FP could be to the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump. More... »

PAGES

2001-2013

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1991-06. Oceanic micronektonic/macrozooplanktonic community structure and feeding in ice covered Antarctic waters during the winter (AMERIEZ 1988) in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 1992-04. Krill diet affects faecal string settling in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 1992-04. The distribution and abundance of krill faecal material and oval pellets in the Scotia and Weddell Seas (Antarctica) and their role in particle flux in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 2009-01. Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization in NATURE
  • 1988-09. Seasonal variability of particle flux in the Weddell Sea and its relation to ice cover in NATURE
  • 1986-10-01. An automated method for the analysis of ‘particulate’ carbon and nitrogen in natural waters in HYDROBIOLOGIA
  • 1985-01. Role of sinking in diatom life-history cycles: ecological, evolutionary and geological significance in MARINE BIOLOGY
  • 1991-06. Short-term variations in particulate matter sedimentation off Kapp Norvegia, Weddell Sea, Antarctica: relation to water mass advection, ice cover, plankton biomass and feeding activity in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 2016-08-04. Feeding and Food Processing in Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba Dana) in BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF ANTARCTIC KRILL
  • 1992-09. Organic carbon in the upper layer and its sedimentation during the ice-retreat period in the Scotia-Weddell Sea, 1988 in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 1988-07. Laboratory and field estimates of the rate of faecal pellet production by Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba in MARINE BIOLOGY
  • 1987-10. Vertical distribution and diurnal migrations of krill — Euphausia superba Dana — from hydroacoustical observations, SIBEX, December 1983/January 1984 in POLAR BIOLOGY
  • 2012-07-18. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom in NATURE
  • 2016-08-04. Swarming and Behaviour in Antarctic Krill in BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF ANTARCTIC KRILL
  • 2009-08-30. The impact of remineralization depth on the air–sea carbon balance in NATURE GEOSCIENCE
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00300-017-2118-z

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-017-2118-z

    DIMENSIONS

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    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32009725


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    64 higher number
    65 ice zone
    66 islands
    67 krill
    68 krill density
    69 krill fecal pellets
    70 krill swarms
    71 large contribution
    72 large predators
    73 largest component
    74 link
    75 marginal ice zone
    76 measurements
    77 mesopelagic
    78 model
    79 need
    80 number
    81 ocean's biological carbon pump
    82 organic carbon flux
    83 particle flux
    84 particulate organic carbon flux
    85 patchy distribution
    86 pellet composition
    87 pellets
    88 potential role
    89 predators
    90 previous measurements
    91 primary production
    92 production
    93 pump
    94 rate
    95 role
    96 sinking
    97 spring
    98 stations
    99 study
    100 swarm
    101 types
    102 upper mesopelagic
    103 velocity
    104 water column
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