Female predisposition to TLR7-driven autoimmunity: gene dosage and the escape from X chromosome inactivation View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-03

AUTHORS

Mélanie Souyris, José E. Mejía, Julie Chaumeil, Jean-Charles Guéry

ABSTRACT

Women develop stronger immune responses than men, with positive effects on the resistance to viral or bacterial infections but magnifying also the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In SLE, the dosage of the endosomal Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is crucial. Murine models have shown that TLR7 overexpression suffices to induce spontaneous lupus-like disease. Conversely, suppressing TLR7 in lupus-prone mice abolishes SLE development. TLR7 is encoded by a gene on the X chromosome gene, denoted TLR7 in humans and Tlr7 in the mouse, and expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), monocytes/macrophages, and B cells. The receptor recognizes single-stranded RNA, and its engagement promotes B cell maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In female mammals, each cell randomly inactivates one of its two X chromosomes to equalize gene dosage with XY males. However, 15 to 23% of X-linked human genes escape X chromosome inactivation so that both alleles can be expressed simultaneously. It has been hypothesized that biallelic expression of X-linked genes could occur in female immune cells, hence fostering harmful autoreactive and inflammatory responses. We review here the current knowledge of the role of TLR7 in SLE, and recent evidence demonstrating that TLR7 escapes from X chromosome inactivation in pDCs, monocytes, and B lymphocytes from women and Klinefelter syndrome men. Female B cells where TLR7 is thus biallelically expressed display higher TLR7-driven functional responses, connecting the presence of two X chromosomes with the enhanced immunity of women and their increased susceptibility to TLR7-dependent autoimmune syndromes. More... »

PAGES

1-12

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  • Journal

    TITLE

    Seminars in Immunopathology

    ISSUE

    N/A

    VOLUME

    N/A

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00281-018-0712-y

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-018-0712-y

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1107346469

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30276444


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