Three-dimensional growth dynamics of the liver in the human fetus View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-07

AUTHORS

Michał Szpinda, Monika Paruszewska-Achtel, Alina Woźniak, Mateusz Badura, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Marcin Wiśniewski

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The fetal liver is indubitably the earliest and the most severely affected organ by abnormal fetal growth. The size of the fetal liver assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography is indispensable in determining the status of fetal growth, nutrition and maturity, and in the early recognition and monitoring fetal micro- and macrosomias. The aim of the present study was to measure the human fetal liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters to establish their age-specific reference intervals, the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th smoothed centile curves, and the relative growth of the liver calculated for the 50th centile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using anatomical, digital (NIS-Elements AR 3.0, Nikon) and statistical methods (one-way ANOVA test for paired data and post hoc RIR Tukey test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Fisher's test, Student's t test, the Altman-Chitty method), length, transverse and sagittal diameters of the liver for the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th centiles were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes (32 males and 37 females) aged 18-30 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions or stillbirths. RESULTS: No male-female differences (P > 0.05) concerning the three parameters studied were found. During the study period, the fetal liver increased tri-dimensionally: in length from 19.51 ± 1.02 to 39.65 ± 7.05 mm, in transverse diameter from 29.44 ± 3.73 to 53.13 ± 5.31 mm, and in sagittal diameter from 22.97 ± 3.79 to 43.22 ± 5.49 mm. The natural logarithmic models were found to fit the data with gestational age (P < 0.001) in the following five cutoff points: 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th and 97th centiles. The values of liver parameters in relation to gestational age in weeks were calculated by the following logarithmic regressions: y = -82.778 + 35.752 × ln(age) ± Z × (-2.778 + 0.308 × age) for liver length, y = -123.06 + 52.668 × ln(age) ± Z × (3.156 + 0.049 × age) for liver transverse diameter, and y = -108.94 + 46.052 × ln(age) ± Z × (-0.541 + 0.188 × age) for liver sagittal diameter. For the 50th centile, at the range of 18-30 weeks, the growth rates per week were gradually decreasing from 1.93 to 1.21 mm for length, from 2.85 to 1.79 mm for transverse diameter, and from 2.49 to 1.56 mm for sagittal diameter of the liver (P < 0.05). During the study period both the length-to-transverse diameter ratio and the sagittal-to-transverse diameter ratio of the liver changed little, attaining the values of 0.71 ± 0.11 and 0.87 ± 0.12, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The fetal liver does not reveal sex differences in its length, transverse and sagittal diameters. The fetal liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters grow logarithmically. The regression equations for the estimation of the mean and standard deviation of liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters allow for calculating any desired centiles according to gestational age. The three-dimensional evolution of the fetal liver follows proportionately. The age-specific reference intervals for evolving liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters constitute the normative values of potential relevance in monitoring normal fetal development and screening for disturbances in fetal growth. More... »

PAGES

439-448

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00276-015-1437-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-015-1437-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008889659

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25645545


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    "description": "PURPOSE: The fetal liver is indubitably the earliest and the most severely affected organ by abnormal fetal growth. The size of the fetal liver assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography is indispensable in determining the status of fetal growth, nutrition and maturity, and in the early recognition and monitoring fetal micro- and macrosomias. The aim of the present study was to measure the human fetal liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters to establish their age-specific reference intervals, the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th smoothed centile curves, and the relative growth of the liver calculated for the 50th centile.\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: Using anatomical, digital (NIS-Elements AR 3.0, Nikon) and statistical methods (one-way ANOVA test for paired data and post hoc RIR Tukey test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Fisher's test, Student's t test, the Altman-Chitty method), length, transverse and sagittal diameters of the liver for the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th centiles were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes (32 males and 37 females) aged 18-30 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions or stillbirths.\nRESULTS: No male-female differences (P > 0.05) concerning the three parameters studied were found. During the study period, the fetal liver increased tri-dimensionally: in length from 19.51 \u00b1 1.02 to 39.65 \u00b1 7.05 mm, in transverse diameter from 29.44 \u00b1 3.73 to 53.13 \u00b1 5.31 mm, and in sagittal diameter from 22.97 \u00b1 3.79 to 43.22 \u00b1 5.49 mm. The natural logarithmic models were found to fit the data with gestational age (P < 0.001) in the following five cutoff points: 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90th and 97th centiles. The values of liver parameters in relation to gestational age in weeks were calculated by the following logarithmic regressions: y = -82.778 + 35.752 \u00d7 ln(age) \u00b1 Z \u00d7 (-2.778 + 0.308 \u00d7 age) for liver length, y = -123.06 + 52.668 \u00d7 ln(age) \u00b1 Z \u00d7 (3.156 + 0.049 \u00d7 age) for liver transverse diameter, and y = -108.94 + 46.052 \u00d7 ln(age) \u00b1 Z \u00d7 (-0.541 + 0.188 \u00d7 age) for liver sagittal diameter. For the 50th centile, at the range of 18-30 weeks, the growth rates per week were gradually decreasing from 1.93 to 1.21 mm for length, from 2.85 to 1.79 mm for transverse diameter, and from 2.49 to 1.56 mm for sagittal diameter of the liver (P < 0.05). During the study period both the length-to-transverse diameter ratio and the sagittal-to-transverse diameter ratio of the liver changed little, attaining the values of 0.71 \u00b1 0.11 and 0.87 \u00b1 0.12, respectively.\nCONCLUSIONS: The fetal liver does not reveal sex differences in its length, transverse and sagittal diameters. The fetal liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters grow logarithmically. The regression equations for the estimation of the mean and standard deviation of liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters allow for calculating any desired centiles according to gestational age. The three-dimensional evolution of the fetal liver follows proportionately. The age-specific reference intervals for evolving liver length, transverse and sagittal diameters constitute the normative values of potential relevance in monitoring normal fetal development and screening for disturbances in fetal growth.", 
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