Caffeine and ethanol in nectar interact with flower color impacting bumblebee behavior View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2022-07-13

AUTHORS

Patricia Jones, Anurag A. Agrawal

ABSTRACT

Caffeine and ethanol are naturally occurring compounds in floral nectar. We examined how these compounds influenced pollinator behaviors including floral preference, floral constancy, and social behavior using bumblebees, Bombus impatiens, which were given prior experience foraging on either human blue or human white (hereafter blue and white) artificial flowers. Because flower color influenced bee behavior, with strong preferences for blue, we focused on the interaction between nectar chemistry and flower color. Bees that had experience with blue flowers preferred blue regardless of nectar chemistry. In contrast, for bees that had prior experience with white flowers, only the control treatment preferred white, while bees exposed to caffeine and ethanol showed no preference. The effects of nectar compounds may therefore only occur when bees are already foraging on a less-preferred color. We also examined the impact of nectar chemistry on the social behavior of joining other bees at flowers. In the same treatments for which bees showed a preference for previously experienced flower colors (all of the blue treatments and only the white control), bees also preferentially visited unoccupied flowers. In the treatments where bees showed no color preference, however (the white caffeine and ethanol treatments), bees showed no preference for unoccupied flowers. We show that the impacts of field-realistic levels of caffeine and ethanol in nectar on pollinator behavior depend on flower color, highlighting that the potential costs and benefits of nectar chemistry to plants are likely to be dependent on bee behavioral biases for other floral traits.Significance statementFlower nectar often contains toxic compounds hypothesized to impact pollination, but little research has shown their effects on the behavioral decisions of free-flying bees. Caffeine and alcohol occur in the nectar of some flowers. We found that bee response to these nectar compounds depends on the flower color. Bees preferentially visited blue flowers regardless of nectar chemistry, but the presence of caffeine or alcohol reduced bee color preference when bees had experience foraging on white flowers. The bumblebee’s social behavior of joining other bees at flowers showed related effects; in treatments where bees showed a preference for flower type, they also preferred to forage alone. This research highlights that bees make decisions based on the interaction between multimodal cues including nectar chemistry, and therefore the strength of selection on nectar chemistry is dependent on bee behavioral biases for other floral traits. More... »

PAGES

103

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2007-05-24. The dynamics of social learning in an insect model, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) in BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
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  • 2019-08-30. For antagonists and mutualists: the paradox of insect toxic secondary metabolites in nectar and pollen in PHYTOCHEMISTRY REVIEWS
  • 1973-02. Amino-acids in Nectar and their Evolutionary Significance in NATURE
  • 1995-09. Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees in JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A
  • 2020-01-14. Neuroactive nectar: compounds in nectar that interact with neurons in ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS
  • 2015-01-03. Flowers with caffeinated nectar receive more pollination in ARTHROPOD-PLANT INTERACTIONS
  • 1986-02. The occurrence and significance of amino acids in floral nectar in PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION
  • 2014-04-17. Foraging bumblebees do not rate social information above personal experience in BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
  • 2005-12-18. Feeding Responses of Free-flying Honeybees to Secondary Compounds Mimicking Floral Nectars in JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY
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