Investigating temporal coordination in the duet contributions of a pair-living small ape View Full Text


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DATE

2022-06-29

AUTHORS

Allison R. Lau, Maryam Zafar, Abdul Hamid Ahmad, Dena J. Clink

ABSTRACT

Social animals use complex communication to maintain social bonds. For pair-bonded animals in particular, acoustic communication is vital to reinforcing bonds and coordinating various behaviors within the bonded pair. Pair consistency in duets can be influenced by the time since pairing and may serve multiple functions; two of note are pair-bond reinforcement and advertisement of the relationship to conspecifics. Here, we assess the potential for pair consistency and plasticity in timing of vocalizations in 50 wild Northern gray gibbons (Hylobates funereus) from seven sites in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, we looked at the timing of the female gibbon’s great call and the subsequent male coda, the male duet contribution that follows the female great call (coda timing), and the duration of the male coda (coda duration). We found that for coda timing, pair-level variance was the most important source of variance, as opposed to intra-individual or inter-site variance. In contrast, for coda duration, individual-level variance was the most important source of variance. We also found that variability in the duration of female calls was not correlated with the timing or duration of male codas. Our results are consistent with previous work showing pair consistency in other paired, duetting species and contribute to the growing body of literature indicating that primate vocalizations—rather than being inflexible and innate—have a high degree of plasticity. Future work should aim to understand both how gibbons coordinate their duets and what impact this coordination may have on quality of the pair’s bond.Significance statementDuetting is seen across a diverse range of taxa, but in only a few nonhuman primates including indris, tarsiers, titi monkeys, and gibbons. Duetting in primates co-occurs with a suite of behavioral traits that include territoriality and pair bonding. Although the functions of primate duets remain a topic of debate, it is clear that duets provide information to neighboring conspecifics about the calling animal(s). Our results indicate that gibbon duets may contain information about pair identity. Investigating how duration of the pair bond influences either pair-level signatures or consistency of male timing will be an important next step in understanding the proximate influences that shape gibbon duet structure. More... »

PAGES

91

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1998-05. Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar) in BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
  • 2008-11-22. Examination of pair-duet stability to promote long-term monitoring of the endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in JOURNAL OF ETHOLOGY
  • 2018-08. Evidence for High Variability in Temporal Features of the Male Coda in Müller’s Bornean Gibbons (Hylobates muelleri) in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY
  • 2016-08-30. Practical Bayesian model evaluation using leave-one-out cross-validation and WAIC in STATISTICS AND COMPUTING
  • 2016. ggplot2, Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis in NONE
  • 2020-01-28. Gibbons aren’t singing in the rain: presence and amount of rainfall influences ape calling behavior in Sabah, Malaysia in SCIENTIFIC REPORTS
  • 2003-12-19. A review of hypotheses for the functions of avian duetting in BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
  • 2021-11-03. Limited Evidence for Individual Signatures or Site-Level Patterns of Variation in Male Northern Gray Gibbon (Hylobates funereus) Duet Codas in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY
  • 2007-10-18. Duet structure provides information about pair identity in the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) in JOURNAL OF ETHOLOGY
  • 2017-07-03. Investigating Individual Vocal Signatures and Small-Scale Patterns of Geographic Variation in Female Bornean Gibbon (Hylobates muelleri) Great Calls in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY
  • 1998-01. Flexibility in the species-typical songs of gibbons in PRIMATES
  • 2017-12-29. Male white-handed gibbons flexibly time duet contributions in BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
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