Potential for Retroposition by Old Alu Subfamilies View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2003-06

AUTHORS

Karla Johanning, Claudina Alemán Stevenson, Oluwatosin O. Oyeniran, Yair M. Gozal, Astrid M. Roy-Engel, Jerzy Jurka, Prescott L. Deininger

ABSTRACT

Alu elements sharing sequence characteristics of the "old" subfamilies are thought to currently be retrotranspositionally inactive. We analyzed one of these old subfamilies of Alu elements, Sx, for sequence conservation relative to the consensus and the length of the "A-tail" as parameters to define the presence of potential Alu Sx source genes in the human genome. Sequence identity to the left half or the right half of the Alu Sx consensus sequence was evaluated for 4424 complete elements obtained from the human genome draft sequence. A small subset of Alu Sx left halves were found to be more conserved than any of the Alu Sx right halves. Selection for promoter function in active elements may explain the slightly higher conservation of the left half. In order to determine whether this sequence identity was the result of recent activity, or simply sequence conservation for older elements, PCR amplification of some of the loci containing Sx elements with conserved left/right halves from different primate genomes was carried out. Several of these Sx Alus were found to have amplified at a later evolutionary period (<35 mya) than expected based on previous studies of Sx elements. Analysis of "A-tail" length, a feature correlated with current retroposition activity, varied between Alu Sx element loci in different primates, where the length increased in specific Alu elements in the human genome. The presence of few conserved Alu Sx elements and the dynamic expansion/contraction of the A-tail suggests that some of these older subfamilies may still be active at very low levels or in a few individuals. More... »

PAGES

658-664

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00239-002-2433-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-002-2433-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007307222

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12911029


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51 schema:description Alu elements sharing sequence characteristics of the "old" subfamilies are thought to currently be retrotranspositionally inactive. We analyzed one of these old subfamilies of Alu elements, Sx, for sequence conservation relative to the consensus and the length of the "A-tail" as parameters to define the presence of potential Alu Sx source genes in the human genome. Sequence identity to the left half or the right half of the Alu Sx consensus sequence was evaluated for 4424 complete elements obtained from the human genome draft sequence. A small subset of Alu Sx left halves were found to be more conserved than any of the Alu Sx right halves. Selection for promoter function in active elements may explain the slightly higher conservation of the left half. In order to determine whether this sequence identity was the result of recent activity, or simply sequence conservation for older elements, PCR amplification of some of the loci containing Sx elements with conserved left/right halves from different primate genomes was carried out. Several of these Sx Alus were found to have amplified at a later evolutionary period (<35 mya) than expected based on previous studies of Sx elements. Analysis of "A-tail" length, a feature correlated with current retroposition activity, varied between Alu Sx element loci in different primates, where the length increased in specific Alu elements in the human genome. The presence of few conserved Alu Sx elements and the dynamic expansion/contraction of the A-tail suggests that some of these older subfamilies may still be active at very low levels or in a few individuals.
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