Spanning the spectrum from safety to liveness View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2018-12

AUTHORS

Rachel Faran, Orna Kupferman

ABSTRACT

Of special interest in formal verification are safety specifications, which assert that the system stays within some allowed region, in which nothing “bad” happens. Equivalently, a computation violates a safety specification if it has a “bad prefix”—a prefix all whose extensions violate the specification. The theoretical properties of safety specifications as well as their practical advantages with respect to general specifications have been widely studied. Safety is binary: a specification is either safety or not safety. We introduce a quantitative measure for safety. Intuitively, the safety level of a language L measures the fraction of words not in L that have a bad prefix. In particular, a safety language has safety level 1 and a liveness language has safety level 0. Thus, our study spans the spectrum between traditional safety and liveness. The formal definition of safety level is based on probability and measures the probability of a random word not in L to have a bad prefix. We study the problem of finding the safety level of languages given by means of deterministic and nondeterministic automata as well as LTL formulas, and the problem of deciding their membership in specific classes along the spectrum (safety, almost-safety, fraction-safety, etc.). We also study properties of the different classes and the structure of deterministic automata for them. More... »

PAGES

1-30

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2000. Liveness and Acceleration in Parameterized Verification in COMPUTER AIDED VERIFICATION
  • 2002-03-14. Synthesizing Monitors for Safety Properties in TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS
  • 2001-11. Model Checking of Safety Properties in FORMAL METHODS IN SYSTEM DESIGN
  • 2013. A Framework for Ranking Vacuity Results in AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY FOR VERIFICATION AND ANALYSIS
  • 2009. An Antichain Algorithm for LTL Realizability in COMPUTER AIDED VERIFICATION
  • 2018-04. On relative and probabilistic finite counterability in FORMAL METHODS IN SYSTEM DESIGN
  • 1995. Temporal Verification of Reactive Systems, Safety in NONE
  • 1992. The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems, Specification in NONE
  • 2005-06-27. Markov decision processes and regular events in AUTOMATA, LANGUAGES AND PROGRAMMING
  • 1989. The anchored version of the temporal framework in LINEAR TIME, BRANCHING TIME AND PARTIAL ORDER IN LOGICS AND MODELS FOR CONCURRENCY
  • 1987-09. Recognizing safety and liveness in DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
  • 1999-03-12. Symbolic Model Checking without BDDs in TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS
  • 1994-09. Safety, liveness and fairness in temporal logic in FORMAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING
  • 2001. On Bounded Specifications in LOGIC FOR PROGRAMMING, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, AND REASONING
  • 1969-12. Decision problems forω-automata in MATHEMATICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092352031


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/2004", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Linguistics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/20", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Language, Communication and Culture", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Hebrew University of Jerusalem", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9619.7", 
              "name": [
                "School of Computer Science and Engineering, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Faran", 
            "givenName": "Rachel", 
            "id": "sg:person.07756402027.42", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07756402027.42"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Hebrew University of Jerusalem", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9619.7", 
              "name": [
                "School of Computer Science and Engineering, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Kupferman", 
            "givenName": "Orna", 
            "id": "sg:person.013427600322.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013427600322.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3975(83)90082-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002213971"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003855982", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003855982", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/inco.1994.1092", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004919913"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-45653-8_2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004929887", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45653-8_2"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-02444-8_12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006239479", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02444-8_12"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008710966", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008710966", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/10722167_26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011669403", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/10722167_26"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/10722167_26", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011669403", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/10722167_26"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01211865", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017038009", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01211865"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01211865", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017038009", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01211865"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1145/3828.3837", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019378177"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01782772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020662690", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01782772"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01782772", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020662690", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01782772"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0032043", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034446079", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0032043"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036968534", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036968534", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(93)90074-j", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037060560"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037077382", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037077382", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0000(75)80050-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038899814"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1145/210332.210339", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042600193"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1011254632723", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044457043", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1011254632723"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01691063", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051741633", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01691063"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01691063", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051741633", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01691063"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01691063", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051741633", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01691063"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0013024", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052329822", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0013024"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(85)90056-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053620070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(85)90056-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053620070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1137/0201010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062841173"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084750001", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084750001", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.21236/ada360973", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091526028"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2006.28", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093882506"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2001.932514", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1094334141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-12", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-12-01", 
        "description": "Of special interest in formal verification are safety specifications, which assert that the system stays within some allowed region, in which nothing \u201cbad\u201d happens. Equivalently, a computation violates a safety specification if it has a \u201cbad prefix\u201d\u2014a prefix all whose extensions violate the specification. The theoretical properties of safety specifications as well as their practical advantages with respect to general specifications have been widely studied. Safety is binary: a specification is either safety or not safety. We introduce a quantitative measure for safety. Intuitively, the safety level of a language L measures the fraction of words not in L that have a bad prefix. In particular, a safety language has safety level 1 and a liveness language has safety level 0. Thus, our study spans the spectrum between traditional safety and liveness. The formal definition of safety level is based on probability and measures the probability of a random word not in L to have a bad prefix. We study the problem of finding the safety level of languages given by means of deterministic and nondeterministic automata as well as LTL formulas, and the problem of deciding their membership in specific classes along the spectrum (safety, almost-safety, fraction-safety, etc.). We also study properties of the different classes and the structure of deterministic automata for them.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.3785498", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1133515", 
            "issn": [
              "0001-5903", 
              "1432-0525"
            ], 
            "name": "Acta Informatica", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Spanning the spectrum from safety to liveness", 
        "pagination": "1-30", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "bc91d18f143003e81c209d7d818b02e2e6988a23a5e48dda95b9adc78d3a55b5"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1092352031"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092352031"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T16:51", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8669_00000568.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00236-017-0307-4"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    163 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      54 URIs      17 LITERALS      5 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4 schema:about anzsrc-for:20
    2 anzsrc-for:2004
    3 schema:author N13348b1a3562495dbc0d4eaf0054ab02
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/10722167_26
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-45653-8_2
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-02444-8_12
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22
    12 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01211865
    13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01691063
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01782772
    15 sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0013024
    16 sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0032043
    17 sg:pub.10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8
    18 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1011254632723
    19 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093
    20 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003855982
    21 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735
    22 https://doi.org/10.1006/inco.1994.1092
    23 https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(85)90056-0
    24 https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(93)90074-j
    25 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3975(83)90082-8
    26 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0000(75)80050-x
    27 https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2001.932514
    28 https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2006.28
    29 https://doi.org/10.1137/0201010
    30 https://doi.org/10.1145/210332.210339
    31 https://doi.org/10.1145/3828.3837
    32 https://doi.org/10.21236/ada360973
    33 schema:datePublished 2018-12
    34 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-12-01
    35 schema:description Of special interest in formal verification are safety specifications, which assert that the system stays within some allowed region, in which nothing “bad” happens. Equivalently, a computation violates a safety specification if it has a “bad prefix”—a prefix all whose extensions violate the specification. The theoretical properties of safety specifications as well as their practical advantages with respect to general specifications have been widely studied. Safety is binary: a specification is either safety or not safety. We introduce a quantitative measure for safety. Intuitively, the safety level of a language L measures the fraction of words not in L that have a bad prefix. In particular, a safety language has safety level 1 and a liveness language has safety level 0. Thus, our study spans the spectrum between traditional safety and liveness. The formal definition of safety level is based on probability and measures the probability of a random word not in L to have a bad prefix. We study the problem of finding the safety level of languages given by means of deterministic and nondeterministic automata as well as LTL formulas, and the problem of deciding their membership in specific classes along the spectrum (safety, almost-safety, fraction-safety, etc.). We also study properties of the different classes and the structure of deterministic automata for them.
    36 schema:genre research_article
    37 schema:inLanguage en
    38 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
    39 schema:isPartOf sg:journal.1133515
    40 schema:name Spanning the spectrum from safety to liveness
    41 schema:pagination 1-30
    42 schema:productId N0a8a6f1addb64ca387802955befee049
    43 N56534378e57045a8828e7aaf6ca4a55b
    44 Naae433962acf4de9a0adb59de37e7523
    45 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092352031
    46 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4
    47 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T16:51
    48 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    49 schema:sdPublisher Nc5c32bc272754a13a808cf39aa2c1ca5
    50 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00236-017-0307-4
    51 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    52 sgo:sdDataset articles
    53 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    54 N0a8a6f1addb64ca387802955befee049 schema:name doi
    55 schema:value 10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4
    56 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    57 N13348b1a3562495dbc0d4eaf0054ab02 rdf:first sg:person.07756402027.42
    58 rdf:rest Nc6469d1fb6dc4d9082873cca870861cd
    59 N56534378e57045a8828e7aaf6ca4a55b schema:name dimensions_id
    60 schema:value pub.1092352031
    61 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    62 Naae433962acf4de9a0adb59de37e7523 schema:name readcube_id
    63 schema:value bc91d18f143003e81c209d7d818b02e2e6988a23a5e48dda95b9adc78d3a55b5
    64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    65 Nc5c32bc272754a13a808cf39aa2c1ca5 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    66 rdf:type schema:Organization
    67 Nc6469d1fb6dc4d9082873cca870861cd rdf:first sg:person.013427600322.04
    68 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    69 anzsrc-for:20 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    70 schema:name Language, Communication and Culture
    71 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    72 anzsrc-for:2004 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    73 schema:name Linguistics
    74 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    75 sg:grant.3785498 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00236-017-0307-4
    76 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    77 sg:journal.1133515 schema:issn 0001-5903
    78 1432-0525
    79 schema:name Acta Informatica
    80 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    81 sg:person.013427600322.04 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9619.7
    82 schema:familyName Kupferman
    83 schema:givenName Orna
    84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013427600322.04
    85 rdf:type schema:Person
    86 sg:person.07756402027.42 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9619.7
    87 schema:familyName Faran
    88 schema:givenName Rachel
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07756402027.42
    90 rdf:type schema:Person
    91 sg:pub.10.1007/10722167_26 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011669403
    92 https://doi.org/10.1007/10722167_26
    93 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    94 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-45653-8_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004929887
    95 https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45653-8_2
    96 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    97 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037077382
    98 https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46002-0_24
    99 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    100 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036968534
    101 https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-49059-0_14
    102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    103 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735
    104 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-0931-7
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093
    107 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4222-2
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-02444-8_12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006239479
    110 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02444-8_12
    111 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    112 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008710966
    113 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02658-4_22
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01211865 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017038009
    116 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01211865
    117 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    118 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01691063 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051741633
    119 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01691063
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01782772 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020662690
    122 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01782772
    123 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    124 sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0013024 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052329822
    125 https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0013024
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 sg:pub.10.1007/bfb0032043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034446079
    128 https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0032043
    129 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    130 sg:pub.10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084750001
    131 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10703-017-0277-8
    132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    133 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1011254632723 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044457043
    134 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1011254632723
    135 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    136 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003161093 schema:CreativeWork
    137 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003855982 schema:CreativeWork
    138 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044704735 schema:CreativeWork
    139 https://doi.org/10.1006/inco.1994.1092 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004919913
    140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    141 https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(85)90056-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053620070
    142 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    143 https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(93)90074-j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037060560
    144 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    145 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3975(83)90082-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002213971
    146 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    147 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0000(75)80050-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038899814
    148 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    149 https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2001.932514 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1094334141
    150 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    151 https://doi.org/10.1109/lics.2006.28 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1093882506
    152 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    153 https://doi.org/10.1137/0201010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062841173
    154 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    155 https://doi.org/10.1145/210332.210339 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042600193
    156 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    157 https://doi.org/10.1145/3828.3837 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019378177
    158 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    159 https://doi.org/10.21236/ada360973 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091526028
    160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    161 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9619.7 schema:alternateName Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    162 schema:name School of Computer Science and Engineering, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    163 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...