Sensitive determination of mixtures of neonicotinoid and fungicide residues in pollen and single bumblebees using a scaled down QuEChERS method ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2015-10

AUTHORS

Arthur David, Cristina Botías, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Dave Goulson, Elizabeth M. Hill

ABSTRACT

To accurately estimate exposure of bees to pesticides, analytical methods are needed to enable quantification of nanogram/gram (ng/g) levels of contaminants in small samples of pollen or the individual insects. A modified QuEChERS extraction method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis was tested to quantify residues of 19 commonly used neonicotinoids and fungicides and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in 100 mg samples of pollen and in samples of individual bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Final recoveries ranged from 71 to 102 % for most compounds with a repeatability of below 20 % for both pollen and bumblebee extracts spiked at 5 and 40 ng/g. The method enables the detection of all compounds at sub-ng/g levels in both matrices and the method detection limits (MDL) ranged from 0.01 to 0.84 ng/g in pollen and 0.01 to 0.96 ng/g in individual bumblebees. Using this method, mixtures of neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiacloprid) and fungicides (carbendazim, spiroxamine, boscalid, tebuconazole, prochloraz, metconazole, fluoxastrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) were detected in pollens of field bean, strawberry and raspberry at concentrations ranging from MDL, and in some bees, the fungicides carbendazim, boscalid, tebuconazole, flusilazole and metconazole were present at concentrations between 0.80 to 30 ng/g. This new method allows the analysis of mixtures of neonicotinoids and fungicides at trace levels in small quantities of pollen and individual bumblebees and thus will facilitate exposure assessment studies. More... »

PAGES

8151-8162

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00216-015-8986-6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-015-8986-6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021122998

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26329280


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