Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2012-04

AUTHORS

Xiangqun Zeng, Zhihong Shen, Ray Mernaugh

ABSTRACT

Inexpensive, noninvasive immunoassays can be used to quickly detect disease in humans. Immunoassay sensitivity and specificity are decidedly dependent upon high-affinity, antigen-specific antibodies. Antibodies are produced biologically. As such, antibody quality and suitability for use in immunoassays cannot be readily determined or controlled by human intervention. However, the process through which high-quality antibodies can be obtained has been shortened and streamlined by use of genetic engineering and recombinant antibody techniques. Antibodies that traditionally take several months or more to produce when animals are used can now be developed in a few weeks as recombinant antibodies produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cell types. Typically most immunoassays use two or more antibodies or antibody fragments to detect antigens that are indicators of disease. However, a label-free biosensor, for example, a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) needs one antibody only. As such, the cost and time needed to design and develop an immunoassay can be substantially reduced if recombinant antibodies and biosensors are used rather than traditional antibody and assay (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) methods. Unlike traditional antibodies, recombinant antibodies can be genetically engineered to self-assemble on biosensor surfaces, at high density, and correctly oriented to enhance antigen-binding activity and to increase assay sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Additionally, biosensor surface chemistry and physical and electronic properties can be modified to further increase immunoassay performance above and beyond that obtained by use of traditional methods. This review describes some of the techniques investigators have used to develop highly specific and sensitive, recombinant antibody-based biosensors for detection of antigens in simple or complex biological samples. More... »

PAGES

3027-3038

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00216-011-5569-z

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5569-z

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043447927

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22159424


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