The use of healthy volunteers instead of patients to inform drug dosing studies: a [11C]raclopride PET study View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2011-04-19

AUTHORS

Euitae Kim, Oliver D. Howes, Bo-Hyung Kim, Kyung-Sang Yu, Jae Min Jeong, Jae Sung Lee, Su Jin Kim, In-Jin Jang, Jung Shin Park, Yong Gil Kim, Sang-Goo Shin, Federico E. Turkheimer, Shitij Kapur, Jun Soo Kwon

ABSTRACT

RationaleReceptor occupancy study has been performed to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles in new antipsychotic drug development. While these findings highlight the value of positron emission tomography (PET) for dose-finding study, what is unclear is if it is necessary to conduct these studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate.ObjectivesTo determine if it is necessary to conduct dopamine receptor occupancy studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate for dose-finding study, we compared the concentration–occupancy relationship in terms of EC50 between patients and healthy volunteers.MethodsTen healthy volunteers and eight patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured dopamine receptor occupancy using [11C]raclopride PET and plasma concentration of YKP1358, a novel antipsychotic drug under clinical development, at a number of time points after the administration of YKP1358. Pharmacokinetic data including area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, elimination half-life, maximum observed plasma concentration, and the time to reach the maximum observed plasma concentration were obtained. We explored the relationship between plasma concentration and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy using Emax model and calculated EC50.ResultsThe elimination half-life was longer in healthy volunteers than in patients. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different between two groups. The EC50 was 7.6 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2–9.0) in healthy volunteers and 8.6 (95% CI 7.4–9.9) in patients.ConclusionsThe antipsychotic concentration–occupancy relationship in patients can be estimated from the EC50 data of healthy volunteers. More... »

PAGES

515

Journal

TITLE

Psychopharmacology

ISSUE

4

VOLUME

217

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048738799

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503604


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1117", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Public Health and Health Services", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Adult", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Alkaloids", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antipsychotic Agents", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Binding, Competitive", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Carbon Radioisotopes", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Clinical Trials as Topic", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Data Interpretation, Statistical", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Female", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Half-Life", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Middle Aged", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Models, Biological", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Patient Selection", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Positron-Emission Tomography", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Protein Binding", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Raclopride", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Radioligand Assay", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Receptors, Dopamine D2", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Schizophrenia", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Young Adult", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, 110-744, Seoul, South Korea", 
            "Psychiatric Imaging, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK", 
            "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Euitae", 
        "id": "sg:person.012477077000.30", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012477077000.30"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Psychiatric Imaging, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK", 
            "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Howes", 
        "givenName": "Oliver D.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01212531743.28", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01212531743.28"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Bo-Hyung", 
        "id": "sg:person.01347371553.93", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347371553.93"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Trial Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Trial Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Yu", 
        "givenName": "Kyung-Sang", 
        "id": "sg:person.012253717172.67", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012253717172.67"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Jeong", 
        "givenName": "Jae Min", 
        "id": "sg:person.01301360400.94", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01301360400.94"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Lee", 
        "givenName": "Jae Sung", 
        "id": "sg:person.0677005044.62", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677005044.62"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Su Jin", 
        "id": "sg:person.0615557266.50", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615557266.50"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Jang", 
        "givenName": "In-Jin", 
        "id": "sg:person.01262612202.05", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01262612202.05"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Park", 
        "givenName": "Jung Shin", 
        "id": "sg:person.0600155514.87", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0600155514.87"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kim", 
        "givenName": "Yong Gil", 
        "id": "sg:person.0661712354.26", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0661712354.26"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Shin", 
        "givenName": "Sang-Goo", 
        "id": "sg:person.015634274042.15", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015634274042.15"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7445.2", 
          "name": [
            "Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Turkheimer", 
        "givenName": "Federico E.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0711751507.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711751507.20"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.13097.3c", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Psychiatry, King\u2019s College London, London, UK"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kapur", 
        "givenName": "Shitij", 
        "id": "sg:person.01112127345.25", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01112127345.25"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Brain & Cognitive Science-WCU program, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, South Korea", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.31501.36", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, 110-744, Seoul, South Korea", 
            "Brain & Cognitive Science-WCU program, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, South Korea"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kwon", 
        "givenName": "Jun Soo", 
        "id": "sg:person.016546502732.35", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016546502732.35"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-010-1783-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038744563", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1783-1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000532", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049041480", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000532"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/274897a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052283541", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/274897a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.33", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011713834", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.33"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008693722", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001009"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.clpt.6100049", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029395067", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.clpt.6100049"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.116", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001974945", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.116"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-1029-z", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016608194", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-1029-z"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02244926", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004565065", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02244926"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2011-04-19", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2011-04-19", 
    "description": "RationaleReceptor occupancy study has been performed to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles in new antipsychotic drug development. While these findings highlight the value of positron emission tomography (PET) for dose-finding study, what is unclear is if it is necessary to conduct these studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate.ObjectivesTo determine if it is necessary to conduct dopamine receptor occupancy studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate for dose-finding study, we compared the concentration\u2013occupancy relationship in terms of EC50 between patients and healthy volunteers.MethodsTen healthy volunteers and eight patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured dopamine receptor occupancy using [11C]raclopride PET and plasma concentration of YKP1358, a novel antipsychotic drug under clinical development, at a number of time points after the administration of YKP1358. Pharmacokinetic data including area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, elimination half-life, maximum observed plasma concentration, and the time to reach the maximum observed plasma concentration were obtained. We explored the relationship between plasma concentration and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy using Emax model and calculated EC50.ResultsThe elimination half-life was longer in healthy volunteers than in patients. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different between two groups. The EC50 was 7.6\u00a0ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2\u20139.0) in healthy volunteers and 8.6 (95% CI 7.4\u20139.9) in patients.ConclusionsThe antipsychotic concentration\u2013occupancy relationship in patients can be estimated from the EC50 data of healthy volunteers.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isFundedItemOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2760532", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2763149", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:grant.2758912", 
        "type": "MonetaryGrant"
      }
    ], 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1085440", 
        "issn": [
          "0033-3158", 
          "1432-2072"
        ], 
        "name": "Psychopharmacology", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "217"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "maximum observed plasma concentration", 
      "positron emission tomography", 
      "dose-finding study", 
      "observed plasma concentration", 
      "plasma concentrations", 
      "healthy volunteers", 
      "receptor occupancy", 
      "dopamine D2 receptor occupancy", 
      "D2 receptor occupancy", 
      "dopamine receptor occupancy", 
      "antipsychotic drug development", 
      "novel antipsychotic drugs", 
      "receptor occupancy studies", 
      "MethodsTen healthy volunteers", 
      "dosing study", 
      "antipsychotic drugs", 
      "patients", 
      "pharmacokinetic data", 
      "occupancy studies", 
      "pharmacokinetic profile", 
      "clinical development", 
      "pharmacokinetic parameters", 
      "Emax model", 
      "emission tomography", 
      "PET studies", 
      "volunteers", 
      "time points", 
      "schizophrenia", 
      "drug development", 
      "time curve", 
      "EC50", 
      "terms of EC50", 
      "study", 
      "ObjectivesTo", 
      "administration", 
      "drugs", 
      "tomography", 
      "concentration", 
      "elimination", 
      "group", 
      "findings", 
      "relationship", 
      "data", 
      "development", 
      "profile", 
      "use", 
      "number", 
      "time", 
      "curves", 
      "area", 
      "occupancy", 
      "values", 
      "EC50 data", 
      "point", 
      "model", 
      "parameters", 
      "terms"
    ], 
    "name": "The use of healthy volunteers instead of patients to inform drug dosing studies: a [11C]raclopride PET study", 
    "pagination": "515", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1048738799"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "21503604"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048738799"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-10-01T06:37", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221001/entities/gbq_results/article/article_544.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

369 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      116 URIs      98 LITERALS      31 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4 schema:about N137121b6b01b44a18393f95d9c53712d
2 N2577f90581e2444d9b53eeb48c473160
3 N2589f26ee0df49c393542de680a6be21
4 N279e700204b24e1fa8a9432febebf68d
5 N31b5121d542542018254dc12b49410e2
6 N3a5d90d9e7cd46eaaed1471d9f4c4aa6
7 N3cfb04c94e524cc7958392790791bd6d
8 N3f0f83673f18466984c4813f8551795e
9 N49db6da7ce364285a915dd8e43284ec5
10 N4fe70378c0664d36aed4d422da248363
11 N5ec987f143824a1ab1cd2557c22210b4
12 N61d4051b816c498f99f62c651ffdf2e4
13 N6662711146514ab6935f72ee99648cb3
14 N79106b57a64c49f1a12f5a4ff4ae7f30
15 N845946e0b33a4cc683ff316fa0ad5c05
16 N9da679e641ab4f9ba461dba48a833183
17 Nb45b86ad4565488fa12db2fcead73914
18 Nb67afdc2f4e6453baa60a22b4cec21d6
19 Nc5b79b8555f745ccb7b81a8a1f3e7d8e
20 Nc63d168493b34eaf9004fefb232aea1e
21 Ncf3dc8dcaf1e40aa90ace3b7fa30163c
22 Ne9ecbef243a245218659f7880666cd8e
23 Nf05e8ef010d74bf1b7136d483c3eda52
24 Nf54c5a00f00049199fe60483b64e361f
25 anzsrc-for:11
26 anzsrc-for:1103
27 anzsrc-for:1117
28 schema:author Nb4c07b780e0a467cb8b33cef66a67257
29 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf02244926
30 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-1029-z
31 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-010-1783-1
32 sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000532
33 sg:pub.10.1038/274897a0
34 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.116
35 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.33
36 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.clpt.6100049
37 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001009
38 schema:datePublished 2011-04-19
39 schema:datePublishedReg 2011-04-19
40 schema:description RationaleReceptor occupancy study has been performed to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles in new antipsychotic drug development. While these findings highlight the value of positron emission tomography (PET) for dose-finding study, what is unclear is if it is necessary to conduct these studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate.ObjectivesTo determine if it is necessary to conduct dopamine receptor occupancy studies in patients with schizophrenia or whether studies in healthy volunteers are adequate for dose-finding study, we compared the concentration–occupancy relationship in terms of EC50 between patients and healthy volunteers.MethodsTen healthy volunteers and eight patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. We measured dopamine receptor occupancy using [11C]raclopride PET and plasma concentration of YKP1358, a novel antipsychotic drug under clinical development, at a number of time points after the administration of YKP1358. Pharmacokinetic data including area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, elimination half-life, maximum observed plasma concentration, and the time to reach the maximum observed plasma concentration were obtained. We explored the relationship between plasma concentration and dopamine D2 receptor occupancy using Emax model and calculated EC50.ResultsThe elimination half-life was longer in healthy volunteers than in patients. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different between two groups. The EC50 was 7.6 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2–9.0) in healthy volunteers and 8.6 (95% CI 7.4–9.9) in patients.ConclusionsThe antipsychotic concentration–occupancy relationship in patients can be estimated from the EC50 data of healthy volunteers.
41 schema:genre article
42 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
43 schema:isPartOf N5a7b94ae631f402d80b45a393ee31c59
44 N74a9b6d5cbea46bd9698e3c9d1fd7d72
45 sg:journal.1085440
46 schema:keywords D2 receptor occupancy
47 EC50
48 EC50 data
49 Emax model
50 MethodsTen healthy volunteers
51 ObjectivesTo
52 PET studies
53 administration
54 antipsychotic drug development
55 antipsychotic drugs
56 area
57 clinical development
58 concentration
59 curves
60 data
61 development
62 dopamine D2 receptor occupancy
63 dopamine receptor occupancy
64 dose-finding study
65 dosing study
66 drug development
67 drugs
68 elimination
69 emission tomography
70 findings
71 group
72 healthy volunteers
73 maximum observed plasma concentration
74 model
75 novel antipsychotic drugs
76 number
77 observed plasma concentration
78 occupancy
79 occupancy studies
80 parameters
81 patients
82 pharmacokinetic data
83 pharmacokinetic parameters
84 pharmacokinetic profile
85 plasma concentrations
86 point
87 positron emission tomography
88 profile
89 receptor occupancy
90 receptor occupancy studies
91 relationship
92 schizophrenia
93 study
94 terms
95 terms of EC50
96 time
97 time curve
98 time points
99 tomography
100 use
101 values
102 volunteers
103 schema:name The use of healthy volunteers instead of patients to inform drug dosing studies: a [11C]raclopride PET study
104 schema:pagination 515
105 schema:productId N2b5ad14ad916480a9492ed894d5efa49
106 N335a1e37ce6042e59c288291f8eb6c0a
107 N9f71da929f14446688e90db5b8c579a9
108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048738799
109 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
110 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-10-01T06:37
111 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
112 schema:sdPublisher Na60e46a8eb4440afb417c5ec577c3a20
113 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
114 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
115 sgo:sdDataset articles
116 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
117 N07d43140cb534e94a8367955e07865f6 rdf:first sg:person.016546502732.35
118 rdf:rest rdf:nil
119 N137121b6b01b44a18393f95d9c53712d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
120 schema:name Half-Life
121 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
122 N1bccdf7be1124f4b90be33af93e9a9af rdf:first sg:person.01112127345.25
123 rdf:rest N07d43140cb534e94a8367955e07865f6
124 N2577f90581e2444d9b53eeb48c473160 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
125 schema:name Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
126 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
127 N2589f26ee0df49c393542de680a6be21 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
128 schema:name Humans
129 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
130 N279e700204b24e1fa8a9432febebf68d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
131 schema:name Data Interpretation, Statistical
132 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
133 N2b5ad14ad916480a9492ed894d5efa49 schema:name pubmed_id
134 schema:value 21503604
135 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
136 N31b5121d542542018254dc12b49410e2 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
137 schema:name Antipsychotic Agents
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 N335a1e37ce6042e59c288291f8eb6c0a schema:name doi
140 schema:value 10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
141 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
142 N35970fd552b24e42be1348a0dd45462e rdf:first sg:person.0677005044.62
143 rdf:rest Nf3d5dc00608f442dae70ec39eb517711
144 N3a5d90d9e7cd46eaaed1471d9f4c4aa6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
145 schema:name Adult
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 N3cfb04c94e524cc7958392790791bd6d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
148 schema:name Alkaloids
149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
150 N3f0f83673f18466984c4813f8551795e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
151 schema:name Protein Binding
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 N4352216c334a435bb99a513ec1b8edc8 rdf:first sg:person.012253717172.67
154 rdf:rest N7ec9c6c20e9140c3b135d3d3c68320cb
155 N494e931e5fac431facdb2e6349f08eff rdf:first sg:person.01212531743.28
156 rdf:rest N7e2a59124d84445aaeabff8e0250f8b9
157 N49db6da7ce364285a915dd8e43284ec5 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
158 schema:name Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists
159 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
160 N4fe70378c0664d36aed4d422da248363 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
161 schema:name Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A
162 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
163 N5a7b94ae631f402d80b45a393ee31c59 schema:issueNumber 4
164 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
165 N5ec987f143824a1ab1cd2557c22210b4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
166 schema:name Middle Aged
167 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
168 N61d4051b816c498f99f62c651ffdf2e4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
169 schema:name Carbon Radioisotopes
170 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
171 N6662711146514ab6935f72ee99648cb3 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
172 schema:name Schizophrenia
173 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
174 N693cad4322514dc2b20d03ece9304f3f rdf:first sg:person.01262612202.05
175 rdf:rest Nb5d8e84976084a14a0ad9d1c8ddeb5c5
176 N74a9b6d5cbea46bd9698e3c9d1fd7d72 schema:volumeNumber 217
177 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
178 N79106b57a64c49f1a12f5a4ff4ae7f30 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
179 schema:name Binding, Competitive
180 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
181 N7de72d16bdc74731bc39232ccf166249 rdf:first sg:person.0711751507.20
182 rdf:rest N1bccdf7be1124f4b90be33af93e9a9af
183 N7e2a59124d84445aaeabff8e0250f8b9 rdf:first sg:person.01347371553.93
184 rdf:rest N4352216c334a435bb99a513ec1b8edc8
185 N7ec9c6c20e9140c3b135d3d3c68320cb rdf:first sg:person.01301360400.94
186 rdf:rest N35970fd552b24e42be1348a0dd45462e
187 N845946e0b33a4cc683ff316fa0ad5c05 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
188 schema:name Patient Selection
189 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
190 N9da679e641ab4f9ba461dba48a833183 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
191 schema:name Male
192 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
193 N9f71da929f14446688e90db5b8c579a9 schema:name dimensions_id
194 schema:value pub.1048738799
195 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
196 Na2a2380e685d4147a5bc524af6d738fc rdf:first sg:person.015634274042.15
197 rdf:rest N7de72d16bdc74731bc39232ccf166249
198 Na60e46a8eb4440afb417c5ec577c3a20 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
199 rdf:type schema:Organization
200 Nb14e074f9f5f4bfb9a35575b3d590c6c rdf:first sg:person.0661712354.26
201 rdf:rest Na2a2380e685d4147a5bc524af6d738fc
202 Nb45b86ad4565488fa12db2fcead73914 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
203 schema:name Clinical Trials as Topic
204 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
205 Nb4c07b780e0a467cb8b33cef66a67257 rdf:first sg:person.012477077000.30
206 rdf:rest N494e931e5fac431facdb2e6349f08eff
207 Nb5d8e84976084a14a0ad9d1c8ddeb5c5 rdf:first sg:person.0600155514.87
208 rdf:rest Nb14e074f9f5f4bfb9a35575b3d590c6c
209 Nb67afdc2f4e6453baa60a22b4cec21d6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
210 schema:name Positron-Emission Tomography
211 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
212 Nc5b79b8555f745ccb7b81a8a1f3e7d8e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
213 schema:name Raclopride
214 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
215 Nc63d168493b34eaf9004fefb232aea1e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
216 schema:name Radioligand Assay
217 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
218 Ncf3dc8dcaf1e40aa90ace3b7fa30163c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
219 schema:name Female
220 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
221 Ne9ecbef243a245218659f7880666cd8e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
222 schema:name Models, Biological
223 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
224 Nf05e8ef010d74bf1b7136d483c3eda52 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
225 schema:name Young Adult
226 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
227 Nf3d5dc00608f442dae70ec39eb517711 rdf:first sg:person.0615557266.50
228 rdf:rest N693cad4322514dc2b20d03ece9304f3f
229 Nf54c5a00f00049199fe60483b64e361f schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
230 schema:name Receptors, Dopamine D2
231 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
232 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
233 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
234 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
235 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
236 schema:name Clinical Sciences
237 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
238 anzsrc-for:1117 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
239 schema:name Public Health and Health Services
240 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
241 sg:grant.2758912 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
242 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
243 sg:grant.2760532 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
244 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
245 sg:grant.2763149 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-011-2306-4
246 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
247 sg:journal.1085440 schema:issn 0033-3158
248 1432-2072
249 schema:name Psychopharmacology
250 schema:publisher Springer Nature
251 rdf:type schema:Periodical
252 sg:person.01112127345.25 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13097.3c
253 schema:familyName Kapur
254 schema:givenName Shitij
255 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01112127345.25
256 rdf:type schema:Person
257 sg:person.01212531743.28 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13097.3c
258 schema:familyName Howes
259 schema:givenName Oliver D.
260 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01212531743.28
261 rdf:type schema:Person
262 sg:person.012253717172.67 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
263 schema:familyName Yu
264 schema:givenName Kyung-Sang
265 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012253717172.67
266 rdf:type schema:Person
267 sg:person.012477077000.30 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.13097.3c
268 schema:familyName Kim
269 schema:givenName Euitae
270 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012477077000.30
271 rdf:type schema:Person
272 sg:person.01262612202.05 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
273 schema:familyName Jang
274 schema:givenName In-Jin
275 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01262612202.05
276 rdf:type schema:Person
277 sg:person.01301360400.94 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
278 schema:familyName Jeong
279 schema:givenName Jae Min
280 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01301360400.94
281 rdf:type schema:Person
282 sg:person.01347371553.93 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
283 schema:familyName Kim
284 schema:givenName Bo-Hyung
285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01347371553.93
286 rdf:type schema:Person
287 sg:person.015634274042.15 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
288 schema:familyName Shin
289 schema:givenName Sang-Goo
290 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015634274042.15
291 rdf:type schema:Person
292 sg:person.016546502732.35 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
293 schema:familyName Kwon
294 schema:givenName Jun Soo
295 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016546502732.35
296 rdf:type schema:Person
297 sg:person.0600155514.87 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
298 schema:familyName Park
299 schema:givenName Jung Shin
300 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0600155514.87
301 rdf:type schema:Person
302 sg:person.0615557266.50 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
303 schema:familyName Kim
304 schema:givenName Su Jin
305 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0615557266.50
306 rdf:type schema:Person
307 sg:person.0661712354.26 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
308 schema:familyName Kim
309 schema:givenName Yong Gil
310 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0661712354.26
311 rdf:type schema:Person
312 sg:person.0677005044.62 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.31501.36
313 schema:familyName Lee
314 schema:givenName Jae Sung
315 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0677005044.62
316 rdf:type schema:Person
317 sg:person.0711751507.20 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.7445.2
318 schema:familyName Turkheimer
319 schema:givenName Federico E.
320 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0711751507.20
321 rdf:type schema:Person
322 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02244926 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004565065
323 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02244926
324 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
325 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-007-1029-z schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016608194
326 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-1029-z
327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
328 sg:pub.10.1007/s00213-010-1783-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038744563
329 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1783-1
330 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
331 sg:pub.10.1007/s002130000532 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049041480
332 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130000532
333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
334 sg:pub.10.1038/274897a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052283541
335 https://doi.org/10.1038/274897a0
336 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
337 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.116 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001974945
338 https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.116
339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
340 sg:pub.10.1038/npp.2008.33 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011713834
341 https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.33
342 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
343 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.clpt.6100049 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029395067
344 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.clpt.6100049
345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
346 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.mp.4001009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008693722
347 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001009
348 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
349 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea
350 schema:name SK Life Science R&D Park, SK Holdings Co., Ltd., Daejeon, South Korea
351 rdf:type schema:Organization
352 grid-institutes:grid.13097.3c schema:alternateName Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK
353 schema:name Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, 110-744, Seoul, South Korea
354 Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK
355 Psychiatric Imaging, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, UK
356 rdf:type schema:Organization
357 grid-institutes:grid.31501.36 schema:alternateName Brain & Cognitive Science-WCU program, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, South Korea
358 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Trial Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
359 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
360 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
361 schema:name Brain & Cognitive Science-WCU program, Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Seoul, South Korea
362 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Trial Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
363 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
364 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
365 Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yeongon-dong, Chongno-gu, 110-744, Seoul, South Korea
366 rdf:type schema:Organization
367 grid-institutes:grid.7445.2 schema:alternateName Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
368 schema:name Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK
369 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...