The effect of brevenal on brevetoxin-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2005-11

AUTHORS

Andrew Sayer, Qing Hu, Andrea J. Bourdelais, Daniel G. Baden, James E. Gibson

ABSTRACT

Brevenal is a nontoxic short-chain trans-syn polyether that competes with brevetoxin (PbTx) for the active site on voltage-sensitive sodium channels. The PbTxs are highly potent polyether toxins produced during blooms of several species of marine dinoflagellates, most notably Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis have been associated with massive fish kills, marine mammal poisoning, and are potentially responsible for adverse human health effects such as respiratory irritation and airway constriction in beach-goers. Additionally, the consumption of shellfish contaminated with PbTxs results in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PbTx could induce DNA damage in a human cell type, the lymphocyte, and if so, whether the damage could be antagonized or ameliorated by brevenal, a brevetoxin antagonist. The DNA damage may occur through both endogenous and exogenous physiological and pathophysiological processes. Unrepaired or erroneously repaired DNA damage may result in gene mutation, chromosome aberration, and modulation of gene regulation, which have been associated with immunotoxicity and carcinogenesis. A single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, or comet assay, was used to determine and compare DNA damage following various treatments. The data were expressed as tail moments, which is the percentage of DNA in the tail multiplied by the length between the center of the head and center of the tail (in arbitrary units). The negative control tail moment was 29.2 (SE=+/-0.9), whereas the positive control (hydrogen peroxide) was 72.1 (1.5) and solvent (ethanol) was 24.2 (2.1). The PbTx-2 (from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA), 10(-8) M was 41.3 (3.6), PbTx-9 (Sigma), 10(-8) M was 57.0 (5.3), PbTx-2 (from University of North Carolina at Wilmington, UNCW), 10(-8) M was 49.4 (9.9), and PbTx-3 (UNCW), 10(-8) M was 64.0 (6.4). 1.0 microg/ml brevenal applied 1 h before the PbTxs protected the lymphocytes from DNA damage; PbTx-2 (Sigma), 31.3 (2.1); PbTx-9 (Sigma), 35.5 (2.9); PbTx-2 (UNCW), 33.9 (1.4); PbTx-3 (UNCW), 34.9 (1.25). The tail moment for 1.0 mug/ml brevenal alone was 30.8 (2.6). The results indicate that extensive genotoxic damage is induced by PbTx-2 and 9 (Sigma), and PbTx-2 and 3 (UNCW) in normal human lymphocytes, which is fully antagonized by brevenal. This suggests that the immune systems of individuals exposed to PbTx during harmful algal bloom (HAB) events may be at risk. More... »

PAGES

683-688

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00204-005-0676-2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-005-0676-2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021484739

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15986201


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43 schema:description Brevenal is a nontoxic short-chain trans-syn polyether that competes with brevetoxin (PbTx) for the active site on voltage-sensitive sodium channels. The PbTxs are highly potent polyether toxins produced during blooms of several species of marine dinoflagellates, most notably Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis have been associated with massive fish kills, marine mammal poisoning, and are potentially responsible for adverse human health effects such as respiratory irritation and airway constriction in beach-goers. Additionally, the consumption of shellfish contaminated with PbTxs results in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PbTx could induce DNA damage in a human cell type, the lymphocyte, and if so, whether the damage could be antagonized or ameliorated by brevenal, a brevetoxin antagonist. The DNA damage may occur through both endogenous and exogenous physiological and pathophysiological processes. Unrepaired or erroneously repaired DNA damage may result in gene mutation, chromosome aberration, and modulation of gene regulation, which have been associated with immunotoxicity and carcinogenesis. A single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, or comet assay, was used to determine and compare DNA damage following various treatments. The data were expressed as tail moments, which is the percentage of DNA in the tail multiplied by the length between the center of the head and center of the tail (in arbitrary units). The negative control tail moment was 29.2 (SE=+/-0.9), whereas the positive control (hydrogen peroxide) was 72.1 (1.5) and solvent (ethanol) was 24.2 (2.1). The PbTx-2 (from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA), 10(-8) M was 41.3 (3.6), PbTx-9 (Sigma), 10(-8) M was 57.0 (5.3), PbTx-2 (from University of North Carolina at Wilmington, UNCW), 10(-8) M was 49.4 (9.9), and PbTx-3 (UNCW), 10(-8) M was 64.0 (6.4). 1.0 microg/ml brevenal applied 1 h before the PbTxs protected the lymphocytes from DNA damage; PbTx-2 (Sigma), 31.3 (2.1); PbTx-9 (Sigma), 35.5 (2.9); PbTx-2 (UNCW), 33.9 (1.4); PbTx-3 (UNCW), 34.9 (1.25). The tail moment for 1.0 mug/ml brevenal alone was 30.8 (2.6). The results indicate that extensive genotoxic damage is induced by PbTx-2 and 9 (Sigma), and PbTx-2 and 3 (UNCW) in normal human lymphocytes, which is fully antagonized by brevenal. This suggests that the immune systems of individuals exposed to PbTx during harmful algal bloom (HAB) events may be at risk.
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