Impact of gain-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on glucose and lipid homeostasis View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2017-06

AUTHORS

D. Foer, M. Zhu, R. L. Cardone, C. Simpson, R. Sullivan, S. Nemiroff, G. Lee, R. G. Kibbey, K.F. Petersen, K. L. Insogna

ABSTRACT

LRP5 loss-of-function mutations have been shown to cause profound osteoporosis and have been associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and dysregulated lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 would also affect these parameters. We therefore studied individuals with LRP5 gain-of-function mutations exhibiting high bone mass (HBM) phenotypes and found that while there was no detected change in insulin sensitivity, there was a significant reduction in serum LDL. INTRODUCTION: Wnt signaling through LRP5 represents a newly appreciated metabolic pathway, which potentially represents a target for drug discovery in type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Studies in animal models suggest a physiologic link between LRP5 and glucose and lipid homeostasis; however, whether it plays a similar role in humans is unclear. As current literature links loss-of-function LRP5 to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that individuals with an HBM-causing mutation in LRP5 would exhibit improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. Since studies in animal models have suggested that Wnt signaling augments insulin secretion, we also examined the effect of Wnt signaling on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on human pancreatic islets. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. We used several methods to assess glucose and lipid metabolism in 11 individuals with HBM-causing mutations in LRP5. Affected study participants were recruited from previously identified kindreds with HBM-causing LRP5 mutations and included 9 males and 2 females. Two subjects that were being treated with insulin for type 2 diabetes were excluded from our analysis, as this would have obscured our ability to determine the impact of gain-of-function LRP5 mutations on glucose metabolism. The mean age of the evaluated study subjects was 55 ± 7 with a mean BMI of 27.2 ± 2.0. Control subjects were matched and recruited from the general community at an equivalent ratio, with 18 males and 4 females (mean age 56 ± 4; mean BMI 27.2 ± 1.0). Study testing was conducted at an academic medical center. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between affected and matched control populations for HbA1c (p = 0.06), eAG (p = 0.06), insulin (p = 0.82), HOMA-B (p = 0.34), or HOMA-IR (p = 0.66). The mean Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) was also similar between control and affected individuals. Total cholesterol (p = 0.43), triglycerides (TG) (p = 0.56), and HDL (p = 0.32) were not different between the same two groups. In a small subset of studied subjects, intramyocellular and hepatic lipid content were similar in the affected individuals and controls when quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, the mean value for serum LDL was significantly lower (p = 0.04) in affected individuals. In primary human islets, there were no differences between control and Wnt treatment groups for insulin secretion measured as area under the curve (AUC) for first phase (p = 0.17) or second phase (p = 0.33) insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Although our sample size was small, our data do not support the hypothesis that HBM-causing LRP5 mutations, associated with increased Wnt signaling, improve glucose metabolism in humans. However, it does appear that LRP5 variants may affect LDL metabolism, a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further study. More... »

PAGES

2011-2017

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00198-017-3977-4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-3977-4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1084019376

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28283687


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54 schema:description LRP5 loss-of-function mutations have been shown to cause profound osteoporosis and have been associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and dysregulated lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that gain-of-function mutations in LRP5 would also affect these parameters. We therefore studied individuals with LRP5 gain-of-function mutations exhibiting high bone mass (HBM) phenotypes and found that while there was no detected change in insulin sensitivity, there was a significant reduction in serum LDL. INTRODUCTION: Wnt signaling through LRP5 represents a newly appreciated metabolic pathway, which potentially represents a target for drug discovery in type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Studies in animal models suggest a physiologic link between LRP5 and glucose and lipid homeostasis; however, whether it plays a similar role in humans is unclear. As current literature links loss-of-function LRP5 to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that individuals with an HBM-causing mutation in LRP5 would exhibit improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. Since studies in animal models have suggested that Wnt signaling augments insulin secretion, we also examined the effect of Wnt signaling on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on human pancreatic islets. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. We used several methods to assess glucose and lipid metabolism in 11 individuals with HBM-causing mutations in LRP5. Affected study participants were recruited from previously identified kindreds with HBM-causing LRP5 mutations and included 9 males and 2 females. Two subjects that were being treated with insulin for type 2 diabetes were excluded from our analysis, as this would have obscured our ability to determine the impact of gain-of-function LRP5 mutations on glucose metabolism. The mean age of the evaluated study subjects was 55 ± 7 with a mean BMI of 27.2 ± 2.0. Control subjects were matched and recruited from the general community at an equivalent ratio, with 18 males and 4 females (mean age 56 ± 4; mean BMI 27.2 ± 1.0). Study testing was conducted at an academic medical center. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between affected and matched control populations for HbA1c (p = 0.06), eAG (p = 0.06), insulin (p = 0.82), HOMA-B (p = 0.34), or HOMA-IR (p = 0.66). The mean Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) was also similar between control and affected individuals. Total cholesterol (p = 0.43), triglycerides (TG) (p = 0.56), and HDL (p = 0.32) were not different between the same two groups. In a small subset of studied subjects, intramyocellular and hepatic lipid content were similar in the affected individuals and controls when quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, the mean value for serum LDL was significantly lower (p = 0.04) in affected individuals. In primary human islets, there were no differences between control and Wnt treatment groups for insulin secretion measured as area under the curve (AUC) for first phase (p = 0.17) or second phase (p = 0.33) insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Although our sample size was small, our data do not support the hypothesis that HBM-causing LRP5 mutations, associated with increased Wnt signaling, improve glucose metabolism in humans. However, it does appear that LRP5 variants may affect LDL metabolism, a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further study.
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