Investigation of mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si/reinforced with melon shell ash particulates View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2018-08

AUTHORS

I. Y. Suleiman, Sani A. Salihu, T. A. Mohammed

ABSTRACT

The use of agricultural wastes which is cost-effective and environmental-friendly materials as reinforcers in metal matrix composites is growing fast in various engineering fields. With this, the research investigates the mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si alloy reinforced with melon shell ash (MSA) for developing a new material. Melon shell ash of particle size of 50 μm was prepared for the studies. Different weight percentages of 5, 10, 15, and 20 MSA were used to develop metal matrix composites for the investigations. The melon shell ash was characterized by X-ray fluorescent (XRF). The morphology of the alloy and composites were studied using scanning electron microscope for the distribution of melon shell ash (MSA) particles. The XRF revealed some oxides with silica (SiO2) being the highest followed by potassium oxide (K2O), alumina (Al2O3). The results of the mechanical properties indicate that the tensile strength increased from 122.5 MPa in the alloy to 204.5 MPa in composites, the hardness values increased from 95 HRC to 103.1 HRC, the impact energies decreased from 17.5 to 14.0 J and percentage elongation also decreased from 35.3 to 16.0 respectively. The wear rate decreases from 0.022 to 0.0091 g/min. The microstructures revealed that the MSA was uniformly distributed within the composites and resulted to the appreciable increase or decrease in the mechanical properties which were attributed to the oxides present. The composites can be used in automobile industries where some of these properties can be explored. More... »

PAGES

4137-4144

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1986-05. Aluminium alloy—rice husk ash particle composites in JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE LETTERS
  • 2003-02. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities in SĀDHANĀ
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104451510


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Materials Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University of Nigeria, Nsukka", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10757.34", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Suleiman", 
            "givenName": "I. Y.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015053355777.98", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015053355777.98"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Kebbi State University of Science and Technology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442605.1", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Salihu", 
            "givenName": "Sani A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011640602457.64", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011640602457.64"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Polytechnic", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442521.4", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Mechanical Engineering, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Mohammed", 
            "givenName": "T. A.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.07.068", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006030207"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2012.1.9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007362022"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-577x(02)00879-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011062963"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.10.008", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012363773"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.02.005", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017822569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1648(03)00292-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022775432"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1648(03)00292-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022775432"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(96)00085-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036185923"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01728691", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038205646", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01728691"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01728691", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038205646", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01728691"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.06.068", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038227237"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-0136(02)00234-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042235235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-0136(02)00234-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042235235"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.232", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044450996"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1005-0302(12)60069-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046419522"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(00)00389-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046660426"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02717141", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047841515", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02717141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02717141", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047841515", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02717141"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-3069(02)00143-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048767529"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-3069(02)00143-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048767529"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.622-623.1295", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072037149"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00375", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091081632"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/225/1/012281", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091479662"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2017/37114", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092970269"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-08", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-08-01", 
        "description": "The use of agricultural wastes which is cost-effective and environmental-friendly materials as reinforcers in metal matrix composites is growing fast in various engineering fields. With this, the research investigates the mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si alloy reinforced with melon shell ash (MSA) for developing a new material. Melon shell ash of particle size of 50 \u03bcm was prepared for the studies. Different weight percentages of 5, 10, 15, and 20 MSA were used to develop metal matrix composites for the investigations. The melon shell ash was characterized by X-ray fluorescent (XRF). The morphology of the alloy and composites were studied using scanning electron microscope for the distribution of melon shell ash (MSA) particles. The XRF revealed some oxides with silica (SiO2) being the highest followed by potassium oxide (K2O), alumina (Al2O3). The results of the mechanical properties indicate that the tensile strength increased from 122.5 MPa in the alloy to 204.5 MPa in composites, the hardness values increased from 95 HRC to 103.1 HRC, the impact energies decreased from 17.5 to 14.0 J and percentage elongation also decreased from 35.3 to 16.0 respectively. The wear rate decreases from 0.022 to 0.0091 g/min. The microstructures revealed that the MSA was uniformly distributed within the composites and resulted to the appreciable increase or decrease in the mechanical properties which were attributed to the oxides present. The composites can be used in automobile industries where some of these properties can be explored.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1043671", 
            "issn": [
              "0268-3768", 
              "1433-3015"
            ], 
            "name": "The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "9-12", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "97"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Investigation of mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si/reinforced with melon shell ash particulates", 
        "pagination": "4137-4144", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "1784bcea5a0a9925fbf12aeaf7c97167c000d0ace516bdcd0ec6e341c87647e0"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1104451510"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104451510"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T09:49", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000347_0000000347/records_89785_00000003.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00170-018-2157-9"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    139 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      46 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0912
    3 schema:author Nc294bba6b1a0466eae4594ac59f2f7ec
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf01728691
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02717141
    6 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00375
    7 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.07.068
    8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.02.005
    9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.10.008
    10 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.06.068
    11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.232
    12 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(00)00389-4
    13 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1648(03)00292-8
    14 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-577x(02)00879-0
    15 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-3069(02)00143-7
    16 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(96)00085-1
    17 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-0136(02)00234-0
    18 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1005-0302(12)60069-3
    19 https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/225/1/012281
    20 https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2012.1.9
    21 https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.622-623.1295
    22 https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2017/37114
    23 schema:datePublished 2018-08
    24 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-08-01
    25 schema:description The use of agricultural wastes which is cost-effective and environmental-friendly materials as reinforcers in metal matrix composites is growing fast in various engineering fields. With this, the research investigates the mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si alloy reinforced with melon shell ash (MSA) for developing a new material. Melon shell ash of particle size of 50 μm was prepared for the studies. Different weight percentages of 5, 10, 15, and 20 MSA were used to develop metal matrix composites for the investigations. The melon shell ash was characterized by X-ray fluorescent (XRF). The morphology of the alloy and composites were studied using scanning electron microscope for the distribution of melon shell ash (MSA) particles. The XRF revealed some oxides with silica (SiO2) being the highest followed by potassium oxide (K2O), alumina (Al2O3). The results of the mechanical properties indicate that the tensile strength increased from 122.5 MPa in the alloy to 204.5 MPa in composites, the hardness values increased from 95 HRC to 103.1 HRC, the impact energies decreased from 17.5 to 14.0 J and percentage elongation also decreased from 35.3 to 16.0 respectively. The wear rate decreases from 0.022 to 0.0091 g/min. The microstructures revealed that the MSA was uniformly distributed within the composites and resulted to the appreciable increase or decrease in the mechanical properties which were attributed to the oxides present. The composites can be used in automobile industries where some of these properties can be explored.
    26 schema:genre research_article
    27 schema:inLanguage en
    28 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    29 schema:isPartOf Na90a2ce5d9c94b07b2eb8f786b30c13e
    30 Nc77240006ea1438a9863bcb82f459267
    31 sg:journal.1043671
    32 schema:name Investigation of mechanical, microstructure, and wear behaviors of Al-12%Si/reinforced with melon shell ash particulates
    33 schema:pagination 4137-4144
    34 schema:productId N063d60517d5e43fe8138e700a7ab05dc
    35 N51c2d5ea52064bed9bca772d00f5a910
    36 Nbf21e0ec5ca6448aa72de4d530bf55d9
    37 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1104451510
    38 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9
    39 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T09:49
    40 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    41 schema:sdPublisher Nf6afa9203ff449c8b35cb8cad8aa35e4
    42 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2Fs00170-018-2157-9
    43 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    44 sgo:sdDataset articles
    45 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    46 N063d60517d5e43fe8138e700a7ab05dc schema:name doi
    47 schema:value 10.1007/s00170-018-2157-9
    48 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    49 N2ad856dec4484063a87b0dcc654cdb2b schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442521.4
    50 schema:familyName Mohammed
    51 schema:givenName T. A.
    52 rdf:type schema:Person
    53 N2c801d8717b442de80d336cb114ce1a5 rdf:first N2ad856dec4484063a87b0dcc654cdb2b
    54 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    55 N51c2d5ea52064bed9bca772d00f5a910 schema:name readcube_id
    56 schema:value 1784bcea5a0a9925fbf12aeaf7c97167c000d0ace516bdcd0ec6e341c87647e0
    57 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    58 N83f10fa0248a4ca183fc0d28217967e6 rdf:first sg:person.011640602457.64
    59 rdf:rest N2c801d8717b442de80d336cb114ce1a5
    60 Na90a2ce5d9c94b07b2eb8f786b30c13e schema:issueNumber 9-12
    61 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    62 Nbf21e0ec5ca6448aa72de4d530bf55d9 schema:name dimensions_id
    63 schema:value pub.1104451510
    64 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    65 Nc294bba6b1a0466eae4594ac59f2f7ec rdf:first sg:person.015053355777.98
    66 rdf:rest N83f10fa0248a4ca183fc0d28217967e6
    67 Nc77240006ea1438a9863bcb82f459267 schema:volumeNumber 97
    68 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    69 Nf6afa9203ff449c8b35cb8cad8aa35e4 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    70 rdf:type schema:Organization
    71 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    72 schema:name Engineering
    73 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    74 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    75 schema:name Materials Engineering
    76 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    77 sg:journal.1043671 schema:issn 0268-3768
    78 1433-3015
    79 schema:name The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    80 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    81 sg:person.011640602457.64 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442605.1
    82 schema:familyName Salihu
    83 schema:givenName Sani A.
    84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011640602457.64
    85 rdf:type schema:Person
    86 sg:person.015053355777.98 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10757.34
    87 schema:familyName Suleiman
    88 schema:givenName I. Y.
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015053355777.98
    90 rdf:type schema:Person
    91 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01728691 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038205646
    92 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01728691
    93 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    94 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02717141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047841515
    95 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02717141
    96 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    97 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00375 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091081632
    98 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    99 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.07.068 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006030207
    100 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    101 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.02.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017822569
    102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2013.10.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012363773
    104 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    105 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.06.068 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038227237
    106 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    107 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044450996
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(00)00389-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046660426
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1648(03)00292-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022775432
    112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    113 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-577x(02)00879-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011062963
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-3069(02)00143-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048767529
    116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    117 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(96)00085-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036185923
    118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    119 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-0136(02)00234-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042235235
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1005-0302(12)60069-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046419522
    122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    123 https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/225/1/012281 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091479662
    124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    125 https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2012.1.9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007362022
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.622-623.1295 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072037149
    128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    129 https://doi.org/10.9734/jabb/2017/37114 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092970269
    130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    131 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10757.34 schema:alternateName University of Nigeria, Nsukka
    132 schema:name Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
    133 rdf:type schema:Organization
    134 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442521.4 schema:alternateName Federal Polytechnic
    135 schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
    136 rdf:type schema:Organization
    137 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.442605.1 schema:alternateName Kebbi State University of Science and Technology
    138 schema:name Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria
    139 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...