Lack of consensus regarding pretensioning and preconditioning protocols for soft tissue graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle      Open Access: True


Article Info

DATE

2016-09

AUTHORS

Kyle A. Jisa, Brady T. Williams, Jeffrey R. Jaglowski, Travis Lee Turnbull, Robert F. LaPrade, Coen A. Wijdicks

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pretensioning and preconditioning of soft tissue grafts are often performed to obviate graft stress relaxation and elongation due to viscoelastic graft properties following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It was hypothesized that a consensus could be identified in the current literature regarding the biomechanical effects and clinical benefits of an optimal protocol. METHODS: A systematic electronic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers to identify relevant publications. Only studies describing and/or comparing pretensioning or preconditioning protocols of soft tissue grafts or equivalent animal research models were eligible for inclusion. Study design, graft type, and protocol, including method, magnitude, mode (cyclic and/or static loading), and duration of load application, were compared. Research results and clinical conclusions were also evaluated for each study. RESULTS: Five studies, including four in vitro biomechanical investigations and one histological analysis of patient tissue, met the predefined criteria for inclusion. Studies described numerous pretensioning and/or preconditioning protocols with varying force, time, and application modalities for multiple soft tissue graft types and animal models. The majority of studies (80 %) utilized at least one pretensioning or preconditioning protocol between 80 and 89 N, while only one study investigated substantially higher loads (500 N). CONCLUSIONS: Despite common trends demonstrating the effects of pretensioning and preconditioning, no clear consensus regarding an optimal protocol, magnitude, or modality could be identified within the currently available relevant literature. Further multidisciplinary research is required before an optimal or consensus protocol can be established for soft tissue ACL reconstruction. Regardless, the current biomechanical literature demonstrates the potential clinically beneficial effects of pretensioning and preconditioning, including reduced graft elongation and greater preservation of graft tension and stiffness following fixation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, Level II. More... »

PAGES

2884-2891

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00167-015-3530-y

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-015-3530-y

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026847133

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25715849


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44 schema:description PURPOSE: Pretensioning and preconditioning of soft tissue grafts are often performed to obviate graft stress relaxation and elongation due to viscoelastic graft properties following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It was hypothesized that a consensus could be identified in the current literature regarding the biomechanical effects and clinical benefits of an optimal protocol. METHODS: A systematic electronic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers to identify relevant publications. Only studies describing and/or comparing pretensioning or preconditioning protocols of soft tissue grafts or equivalent animal research models were eligible for inclusion. Study design, graft type, and protocol, including method, magnitude, mode (cyclic and/or static loading), and duration of load application, were compared. Research results and clinical conclusions were also evaluated for each study. RESULTS: Five studies, including four in vitro biomechanical investigations and one histological analysis of patient tissue, met the predefined criteria for inclusion. Studies described numerous pretensioning and/or preconditioning protocols with varying force, time, and application modalities for multiple soft tissue graft types and animal models. The majority of studies (80 %) utilized at least one pretensioning or preconditioning protocol between 80 and 89 N, while only one study investigated substantially higher loads (500 N). CONCLUSIONS: Despite common trends demonstrating the effects of pretensioning and preconditioning, no clear consensus regarding an optimal protocol, magnitude, or modality could be identified within the currently available relevant literature. Further multidisciplinary research is required before an optimal or consensus protocol can be established for soft tissue ACL reconstruction. Regardless, the current biomechanical literature demonstrates the potential clinically beneficial effects of pretensioning and preconditioning, including reduced graft elongation and greater preservation of graft tension and stiffness following fixation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review, Level II.
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