The Kenticha rare-element pegmatite, Ethiopia: internal differentiation, U–Pb age and Ta mineralization View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2009-10

AUTHORS

Dirk Küster, Rolf L. Romer, Dandena Tolessa, Desta Zerihun, K. Bheemalingeswara, Frank Melcher, Thomas Oberthür

ABSTRACT

The Kenticha rare-element pegmatite, a globally important tantalite source in the Neoproterozoic Adola Belt of southern Ethiopia, is a highly fractionated, huge (2,000 m long and up to 100 m thick), subhorizontal, sheet-like body, discordantly emplaced in ultramafic host rock. It corresponds to the spodumene subtype of the rare-element pegmatite class and belongs to the lithium–cesium–tantalum petrogenetic family. The Kenticha pegmatite is asymmetrically zoned from bottom to top into granitic lower zone, spodumene-free intermediate zone, and spodumene-bearing upper zone. A monomineralic quartz unit is discontinuously developed within the upper zone. Whole-rock data indicate an internal geochemical differentiation of the pegmatite sheet proceeding from the lower zone (K/Rb ~36, K/Cs ~440, Al/Ga ~2,060, Nb/Ta ~2.6) to the upper zone (K/Rb ~19, K/Cs ~96, Al/Ga ~1,600, Nb/Ta ~0.7). The latter one is strongly enriched in Li2O (up to 3.21%), Rb (up to 4,570 ppm), Cs (up to 730 ppm), Ga (up to 71 ppm), and Ta (up to 554 ppm). Similar trends of increasing fractionation from lower zone to upper zone were obtained in muscovite (K/Rb 23–14, K/Cs 580–290, K/Tl 6,790–3,730, Fe/Mn 19–10, Nb/Ta 6.5–3.8) and columbite–tantalite (Mn/Mn + Fe 0.4–1, Ta/Ta + Nb 0.1–0.9). The bottom-to-top differentiation of the Kenticha pegmatite and the Ta mineralization in its upper part are principally attributed to upward in situ fractionation of a residual leucogranitic to pegmatitic melt, largely under closed system conditions. High MgO contents (up to 5.05%) in parts of the upper zone are the result of postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration and contamination by hanging wall serpentinite. U–Pb dating of Mn-tantalite from two zones of the Kenticha pegmatite gave ages of 530.2 ± 1.3 and 530.0 ± 2.3 Ma. Mn-tantalite from the Bupo pegmatite, situated 9 km north of Kenticha, gave an age of 529.2 ± 4.1 Ma, indicating coeval emplacement of the two pegmatites. The emplacement of the pegmatites is temporally related to postorogenic granite magmatism, producing slightly peraluminous, I-type plutons in the area surrounding the Kenticha pegmatite field. Fractionated members of this suite might be envisaged as potential parental magmas. More... »

PAGES

723

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00126-009-0240-8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00126-009-0240-8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038797268


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    "description": "The Kenticha rare-element pegmatite, a globally important tantalite source in the Neoproterozoic Adola Belt of southern Ethiopia, is a highly fractionated, huge (2,000 m long and up to 100 m thick), subhorizontal, sheet-like body, discordantly emplaced in ultramafic host rock. It corresponds to the spodumene subtype of the rare-element pegmatite class and belongs to the lithium\u2013cesium\u2013tantalum petrogenetic family. The Kenticha pegmatite is asymmetrically zoned from bottom to top into granitic lower zone, spodumene-free intermediate zone, and spodumene-bearing upper zone. A monomineralic quartz unit is discontinuously developed within the upper zone. Whole-rock data indicate an internal geochemical differentiation of the pegmatite sheet proceeding from the lower zone (K/Rb ~36, K/Cs ~440, Al/Ga ~2,060, Nb/Ta ~2.6) to the upper zone (K/Rb ~19, K/Cs ~96, Al/Ga ~1,600, Nb/Ta ~0.7). The latter one is strongly enriched in Li2O (up to 3.21%), Rb (up to 4,570 ppm), Cs (up to 730 ppm), Ga (up to 71 ppm), and Ta (up to 554 ppm). Similar trends of increasing fractionation from lower zone to upper zone were obtained in muscovite (K/Rb 23\u201314, K/Cs 580\u2013290, K/Tl 6,790\u20133,730, Fe/Mn 19\u201310, Nb/Ta 6.5\u20133.8) and columbite\u2013tantalite (Mn/Mn + Fe 0.4\u20131, Ta/Ta + Nb 0.1\u20130.9). The bottom-to-top differentiation of the Kenticha pegmatite and the Ta mineralization in its upper part are principally attributed to upward in situ fractionation of a residual leucogranitic to pegmatitic melt, largely under closed system conditions. High MgO contents (up to 5.05%) in parts of the upper zone are the result of postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration and contamination by hanging wall serpentinite. U\u2013Pb dating of Mn-tantalite from two zones of the Kenticha pegmatite gave ages of 530.2 \u00b1 1.3 and 530.0 \u00b1 2.3 Ma. Mn-tantalite from the Bupo pegmatite, situated 9 km north of Kenticha, gave an age of 529.2 \u00b1 4.1 Ma, indicating coeval emplacement of the two pegmatites. The emplacement of the pegmatites is temporally related to postorogenic granite magmatism, producing slightly peraluminous, I-type plutons in the area surrounding the Kenticha pegmatite field. Fractionated members of this suite might be envisaged as potential parental magmas.", 
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