Genetic evidence of a causal effect of insulin resistance on branched-chain amino acid levels View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

2017-05

AUTHORS

Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna Jonsson, Christian T. Have, Kristine H. Allin, Daniel R. Witte, Marit E. Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen, Torben Hansen

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fasting plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between the two. We aimed to disentangle the causal relations by performing a Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with circulating BCAA levels and insulin resistance as instrumental variables. METHODS: We measured circulating BCAA levels in blood plasma by NMR spectroscopy in 1,321 individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort. We complemented our analyses by using previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) (n = 46,186) and from a GWAS of serum BCAA levels (n = 24,925). We used a genetic risk score (GRS), calculated using ten established fasting serum insulin associated variants, as an instrumental variable for insulin resistance. A GRS of three variants increasing circulating BCAA levels was used as an instrumental variable for circulating BCAA levels. RESULTS: Fasting plasma BCAA levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β 0.137 [95% CI 0.08, 0.19] p = 6 × 10-7). However, the GRS for circulating BCAA levels was not associated with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (β -0.011 [95% CI -0.053, 0.032] p = 0.6 and β -0.011 [95% CI -0.054, 0.031] p = 0.6, respectively) or in GWAS results for HOMA-IR from MAGIC (β for valine-increasing GRS -0.012 [95% CI -0.069, 0.045] p = 0.7). By contrast, the insulin-resistance-increasing GRS was significantly associated with increased BCAA levels in ADDITION-PRO (β 0.027 [95% CI 0.005, 0.048] p = 0.01) and in GWAS results for serum BCAA levels (β 1.22 [95% CI 0.71, 1.73] p = 4 × 10-6, β 0.96 [95% CI 0.45, 1.47] p = 3 × 10-4, and β 0.67 [95% CI 0.16, 1.18] p = 0.01 for isoleucine, leucine and valine levels, respectively) and instrumental variable analyses in ADDITION-PRO indicated that HOMA-IR is causally related to higher circulating fasting BCAA levels (β 0.73 [95% CI 0.26, 1.19] p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that higher BCAA levels do not have a causal effect on insulin resistance while increased insulin resistance drives higher circulating fasting BCAA levels. More... »

PAGES

873-878

References to SciGraph publications

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  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00125-017-4222-6

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4222-6

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083738608

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28184960


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        "description": "AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fasting plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between the two. We aimed to disentangle the causal relations by performing a Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with circulating BCAA levels and insulin resistance as instrumental variables.\nMETHODS: We measured circulating BCAA levels in blood plasma by NMR spectroscopy in 1,321 individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort. We complemented our analyses by using previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) (n\u2009=\u200946,186) and from a GWAS of serum BCAA levels (n\u2009=\u200924,925). We used a genetic risk score (GRS), calculated using ten established fasting serum insulin associated variants, as an instrumental variable for insulin resistance. A GRS of three variants increasing circulating BCAA levels was used as an instrumental variable for circulating BCAA levels.\nRESULTS: Fasting plasma BCAA levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (\u03b2 0.137 [95% CI 0.08, 0.19] p\u2009=\u20096\u2009\u00d7\u200910-7). However, the GRS for circulating BCAA levels was not associated with fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR in ADDITION-PRO (\u03b2 -0.011 [95% CI -0.053, 0.032] p\u2009=\u20090.6 and \u03b2 -0.011 [95% CI -0.054, 0.031] p\u2009=\u20090.6, respectively) or in GWAS results for HOMA-IR from MAGIC (\u03b2 for valine-increasing GRS -0.012 [95% CI -0.069, 0.045] p\u2009=\u20090.7). By contrast, the insulin-resistance-increasing GRS was significantly associated with increased BCAA levels in ADDITION-PRO (\u03b2 0.027 [95% CI 0.005, 0.048] p\u2009=\u20090.01) and in GWAS results for serum BCAA levels (\u03b2 1.22 [95% CI 0.71, 1.73] p\u2009=\u20094\u2009\u00d7\u200910-6, \u03b2 0.96 [95% CI 0.45, 1.47] p\u2009=\u20093\u2009\u00d7\u200910-4, and \u03b2 0.67 [95% CI 0.16, 1.18] p\u2009=\u20090.01 for isoleucine, leucine and valine levels, respectively) and instrumental variable analyses in ADDITION-PRO indicated that HOMA-IR is causally related to higher circulating fasting BCAA levels (\u03b2 0.73 [95% CI 0.26, 1.19] p\u2009=\u20090.002).\nCONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that higher BCAA levels do not have a causal effect on insulin resistance while increased insulin resistance drives higher circulating fasting BCAA levels.", 
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