Ultrasound grading of round Eucalyptus timber using the Brazilian standard View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2018-05

AUTHORS

Mônica Ruy, Raquel Gonçalves, Douglas Moraes Pereira, Rafael Gustavo Mansini Lorensani, Cinthya Bertoldo

ABSTRACT

The structural use of round timber has been considered competitive in terms of both economics and sustainability due to the low energy consumption required for processing it. However, structural uses of wood in round and sawed forms require knowledge of wood properties, which makes the grading of these properties essential. In Brazil, an ultrasound grading standard for wood was proposed based on tests of lumber from tropical species with an average age of approximately 45 years. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the grades proposed by this standard could be used, either directly or by applying correction factors, to grade round timber derived from a planted Eucalyptus forest. For this evaluation, round timber with different diameters was tested using ultrasound at saturated moisture content (MC) greater than 30% and at environmental equilibrium (an MC of approximately 12%). Static bending tests were conducted only when the MC was at the environmental equilibrium (approximately 12%). Although it is necessary to validate the conclusions with a larger data set, the results indicate that due to the correlation between the diameter of round timber and its acoustic and mechanical properties, any round timber grading system must consider the diameter of the pieces. The larger the diameter of the round wood is, the greater the difference between the actual velocity in the log and the velocity expected by the grading standard that considers the stiffness. More... »

PAGES

889-898

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2006. Grading timber and glued structural members in PRIMARY WOOD PROCESSING
  • 2000-11. Sorting of logs using acoustics in WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • 2014-01. Roundwood pre-grading with longitudinal acoustic waves for production of structural boards in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100765051


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0705", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Forestry Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/07", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "State University of Campinas", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b", 
              "name": [
                "Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. C\u00e2ndido Rondon, 501, Bar\u00e3o Geraldo, Campinas, S\u00e3o Paulo, Brazil"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Ruy", 
            "givenName": "M\u00f4nica", 
            "id": "sg:person.016532062207.08", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016532062207.08"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "State University of Campinas", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b", 
              "name": [
                "Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. C\u00e2ndido Rondon, 501, Bar\u00e3o Geraldo, Campinas, S\u00e3o Paulo, Brazil"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gon\u00e7alves", 
            "givenName": "Raquel", 
            "id": "sg:person.01153027367.28", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01153027367.28"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "State University of Campinas", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b", 
              "name": [
                "Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. C\u00e2ndido Rondon, 501, Bar\u00e3o Geraldo, Campinas, S\u00e3o Paulo, Brazil"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pereira", 
            "givenName": "Douglas Moraes", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "State University of Campinas", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b", 
              "name": [
                "Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. C\u00e2ndido Rondon, 501, Bar\u00e3o Geraldo, Campinas, S\u00e3o Paulo, Brazil"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Lorensani", 
            "givenName": "Rafael Gustavo Mansini", 
            "id": "sg:person.010106576541.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010106576541.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "State University of Campinas", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b", 
              "name": [
                "Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. C\u00e2ndido Rondon, 501, Bar\u00e3o Geraldo, Campinas, S\u00e3o Paulo, Brazil"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Bertoldo", 
            "givenName": "Cinthya", 
            "id": "sg:person.012741405151.76", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012741405151.76"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-624x(90)90060-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001261167"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-624x(90)90060-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001261167"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-013-0757-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001821364", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-013-0757-5"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000048", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007394708", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002260000048"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-4393-7_10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016305305", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4393-7_10"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.128", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018339283"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-67622004000600014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029546453"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5935/1809-2667.20130006", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073519791"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/17480272.2017.1313312", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085242541"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2018-05", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2018-05-01", 
        "description": "The structural use of round timber has been considered competitive in terms of both economics and sustainability due to the low energy consumption required for processing it. However, structural uses of wood in round and sawed forms require knowledge of wood properties, which makes the grading of these properties essential. In Brazil, an ultrasound grading standard for wood was proposed based on tests of lumber from tropical species with an average age of approximately 45 years. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the grades proposed by this standard could be used, either directly or by applying correction factors, to grade round timber derived from a planted Eucalyptus forest. For this evaluation, round timber with different diameters was tested using ultrasound at saturated moisture content (MC) greater than 30% and at environmental equilibrium (an MC of approximately 12%). Static bending tests were conducted only when the MC was at the environmental equilibrium (approximately 12%). Although it is necessary to validate the conclusions with a larger data set, the results indicate that due to the correlation between the diameter of round timber and its acoustic and mechanical properties, any round timber grading system must consider the diameter of the pieces. The larger the diameter of the round wood is, the greater the difference between the actual velocity in the log and the velocity expected by the grading standard that considers the stiffness.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isFundedItemOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4477127", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4503434", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:grant.4476780", 
            "type": "MonetaryGrant"
          }
        ], 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1135931", 
            "issn": [
              "0018-3768", 
              "1436-736X"
            ], 
            "name": "European Journal of Wood and Wood Products", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "3", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "76"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Ultrasound grading of round Eucalyptus timber using the Brazilian standard", 
        "pagination": "889-898", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0bf075b61238c5d1c77fbf15243b2cc277ace47dee6e210d7e4b5fba2dbe0bf2"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1100765051"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100765051"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T01:55", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8700_00000493.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    121 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      35 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1 schema:about anzsrc-for:07
    2 anzsrc-for:0705
    3 schema:author N483bc5c2b2894628b55928039d140ae0
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-4393-7_10
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-013-0757-5
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000048
    7 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-624x(90)90060-2
    8 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.128
    9 https://doi.org/10.1080/17480272.2017.1313312
    10 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-67622004000600014
    11 https://doi.org/10.5935/1809-2667.20130006
    12 schema:datePublished 2018-05
    13 schema:datePublishedReg 2018-05-01
    14 schema:description The structural use of round timber has been considered competitive in terms of both economics and sustainability due to the low energy consumption required for processing it. However, structural uses of wood in round and sawed forms require knowledge of wood properties, which makes the grading of these properties essential. In Brazil, an ultrasound grading standard for wood was proposed based on tests of lumber from tropical species with an average age of approximately 45 years. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the grades proposed by this standard could be used, either directly or by applying correction factors, to grade round timber derived from a planted Eucalyptus forest. For this evaluation, round timber with different diameters was tested using ultrasound at saturated moisture content (MC) greater than 30% and at environmental equilibrium (an MC of approximately 12%). Static bending tests were conducted only when the MC was at the environmental equilibrium (approximately 12%). Although it is necessary to validate the conclusions with a larger data set, the results indicate that due to the correlation between the diameter of round timber and its acoustic and mechanical properties, any round timber grading system must consider the diameter of the pieces. The larger the diameter of the round wood is, the greater the difference between the actual velocity in the log and the velocity expected by the grading standard that considers the stiffness.
    15 schema:genre research_article
    16 schema:inLanguage en
    17 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    18 schema:isPartOf N6516a0febc1b4714a232980c6f0f010d
    19 N6b04d2fa2a3b4653814e964006c149f7
    20 sg:journal.1135931
    21 schema:name Ultrasound grading of round Eucalyptus timber using the Brazilian standard
    22 schema:pagination 889-898
    23 schema:productId N005e86063f9d46b28cf63d41472a33b0
    24 N08cee9427de2427aa53c2f78fdb8bbfe
    25 N5519da3ad8414e58b460d83c9a68801d
    26 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1100765051
    27 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    28 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T01:55
    29 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    30 schema:sdPublisher N94ce0f20f31946a4bd95d3c18273acc7
    31 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    32 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    33 sgo:sdDataset articles
    34 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    35 N005e86063f9d46b28cf63d41472a33b0 schema:name dimensions_id
    36 schema:value pub.1100765051
    37 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    38 N08cee9427de2427aa53c2f78fdb8bbfe schema:name readcube_id
    39 schema:value 0bf075b61238c5d1c77fbf15243b2cc277ace47dee6e210d7e4b5fba2dbe0bf2
    40 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    41 N2095944d84954b0db460b8a0437bd466 rdf:first sg:person.01153027367.28
    42 rdf:rest N94da936e6c894aceb549f6442e3b1193
    43 N483bc5c2b2894628b55928039d140ae0 rdf:first sg:person.016532062207.08
    44 rdf:rest N2095944d84954b0db460b8a0437bd466
    45 N4bbd90e149b84d70b590bff8a6dd74ef schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b
    46 schema:familyName Pereira
    47 schema:givenName Douglas Moraes
    48 rdf:type schema:Person
    49 N5519da3ad8414e58b460d83c9a68801d schema:name doi
    50 schema:value 10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    51 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    52 N6516a0febc1b4714a232980c6f0f010d schema:issueNumber 3
    53 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    54 N6b04d2fa2a3b4653814e964006c149f7 schema:volumeNumber 76
    55 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    56 N94ce0f20f31946a4bd95d3c18273acc7 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    57 rdf:type schema:Organization
    58 N94da936e6c894aceb549f6442e3b1193 rdf:first N4bbd90e149b84d70b590bff8a6dd74ef
    59 rdf:rest Nffccf091b15a49c2bdc701a75c739dea
    60 Nef1c674ba438496387f138071860e00d rdf:first sg:person.012741405151.76
    61 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    62 Nffccf091b15a49c2bdc701a75c739dea rdf:first sg:person.010106576541.13
    63 rdf:rest Nef1c674ba438496387f138071860e00d
    64 anzsrc-for:07 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    65 schema:name Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
    66 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    67 anzsrc-for:0705 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    68 schema:name Forestry Sciences
    69 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    70 sg:grant.4476780 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    71 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    72 sg:grant.4477127 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    73 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    74 sg:grant.4503434 http://pending.schema.org/fundedItem sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-018-1292-1
    75 rdf:type schema:MonetaryGrant
    76 sg:journal.1135931 schema:issn 0018-3768
    77 1436-736X
    78 schema:name European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
    79 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    80 sg:person.010106576541.13 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b
    81 schema:familyName Lorensani
    82 schema:givenName Rafael Gustavo Mansini
    83 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010106576541.13
    84 rdf:type schema:Person
    85 sg:person.01153027367.28 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b
    86 schema:familyName Gonçalves
    87 schema:givenName Raquel
    88 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01153027367.28
    89 rdf:type schema:Person
    90 sg:person.012741405151.76 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b
    91 schema:familyName Bertoldo
    92 schema:givenName Cinthya
    93 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012741405151.76
    94 rdf:type schema:Person
    95 sg:person.016532062207.08 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b
    96 schema:familyName Ruy
    97 schema:givenName Mônica
    98 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016532062207.08
    99 rdf:type schema:Person
    100 sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-4393-7_10 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016305305
    101 https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4393-7_10
    102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    103 sg:pub.10.1007/s00107-013-0757-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001821364
    104 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-013-0757-5
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000048 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007394708
    107 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002260000048
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-624x(90)90060-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001261167
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018339283
    112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    113 https://doi.org/10.1080/17480272.2017.1313312 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085242541
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-67622004000600014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029546453
    116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    117 https://doi.org/10.5935/1809-2667.20130006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1073519791
    118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    119 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.411087.b schema:alternateName State University of Campinas
    120 schema:name Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing, LabEND, College of Agricultural Engineering, FEAGRI, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Cândido Rondon, 501, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
    121 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...