Wie aus Umweltforschung die genetische Pränataldiagnostik entstand View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2019-03

AUTHORS

Birgit Nemec, Fabian Zimmer

ABSTRACT

The history of genetic prenatal diagnosis has so far been analyzed as a part of the history of human genetics and its reorientation as a clinical and laboratory-based scientific discipline in the second half of the 20th century. Based on new source material, we show in this paper that the interest in prenatal diagnosis also arose within the context of research on mutagenicity (the capacity to induce mutations) that was concerned with environmental dangers to human health. Our analysis of the debates around the establishment of the German Research Foundation's (DFG) research program "Prenatal Diagnosis of Genetic Defects" reveals that amniocentesis was introduced in Western Germany by a group of scientists working on the dangers for the human organism caused by radiation, pharmaceuticals, and other substances and consumer goods. We argue that, in a period of growing environmental concern, the support of prenatal diagnosis aimed to close a perceived gap in the prevention of environmental mutagenicity, i. e. genetic anomalies induced by environmental factors. The expected financing of prenatal diagnosis by health insurance in the course of the reform of abortion rights was used as another argument for the new technology's introduction as a "defensive measure". Only in a second step did changes in research structures, but most importantly experience from gynecological practice lead to a reframing of the technology as a tool for the diagnosis and prevention of mostly genetic or spontaneously occurring anomalies. Eventually, prenatal diagnosis, as it became routinely used in Western Germany from the early 1980s onward, had little to do with "environmental" questions. This case study of the early history of genetic prenatal diagnosis analyzes the still poorly researched relationship between research in human genetics, environmental research and medical practice. Furthermore, we aim to shed new light on a shift in perspective in prevention around 1970 that has so far been described in different contexts. More... »

PAGES

39-78

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1964. Klassische und molekulare Genetik in NONE
  • 2010-11. Prävention chronischer Herz-Kreislauf-Krankheiten in PRÄVENTION UND GESUNDHEITSFÖRDERUNG
  • 2017. Counselling, Risk and Prevention in Human Genetic Early Diagnosis in the Federal Republic of Germany in HISTORY OF HUMAN GENETICS
  • 2018-12. Whose Turn? Chromosome Research and the Study of the Human Genome in JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY
  • 2017. The International Workshops on Genetics, Medicine and History: An Overview, 2003–2015 in HISTORY OF HUMAN GENETICS
  • 2009-02. Hexa-Sabbat in NTM ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR GESCHICHTE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN, TECHNIK UND MEDIZIN
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s00048-019-00207-w

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00048-019-00207-w

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1112230908

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30783691


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