Congenital deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome): Diagnostic value of urinary free cortisol and cortisone View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2001-01

AUTHORS

Mario Palermo, G. Delitala, F. Mantero, P. M. Stewart, C. H. L. Shackleton

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an inherited form of hypertension. This disorder results from an inability of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-OHSD) to inactivate cortisol to cortisone. The diagnosis of AME is usually based on an elevated ratio of cortisol to cortisone reduced metabolites in the urine [tetrahydrocortisol plus allotetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (THF+alloTHF/THE)]. The principal site of "A" ring reduction is the liver, but AME arises from mutation in the gene encoding 11beta-OHSD2 in the kidney. We used a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method to measure the urinary free cortisol (UFF) and free cortisone (UFE) in 24 patients affected by the two variants of AME [19 with the classical form (type I) and 5 with the mild form called AME type II] in order to provide a more reproducible in vivo measure of the renal enzymatic activity. Type I patients were divided into two groups: children under 12 and adults. UFF levels (microg/24 h) did not differ between under-12 controls and AME type I children (mean+/-SD, 9+/-4 and 15+/-12, respectively), but was significantly higher in affected adults compared to controls: (62+/-32 vs 29+/-8, p<0.01). No differences were found between adult controls and AME type II patients (29+/-8 and 37.0+/-14, respectively). UFE was undetectable in 63% of AME type I and significantly lower in AME type II (p<0.05). As a consequence UFF/UFE ratio was significantly higher in AME type I patients both in children and adults compared to controls (AME children: 5.1+/-2.6; normal children: 0.43+/-0.2, p<0.01; AME type I adults: 17.7+/-19.6; normal adults: 0.54+/-0.3 p<0.01). For AME type II, where UFE was detectable in every case, the UFF/UFE ratio was significantly higher than adult controls (2.75+/-1.5 vs 0.54+/-0.3, p<0.01). In conclusion, our study indicates that UFE and UFF/UFE ratio are sensitive markers of 11beta-OHSD2, directly reflecting the activity of the renal isozyme and readily identifying patients with AME. The presence of an altered UFF/UFE ratio in both types of AME, although with different degree of severity, calls for re-evaluation and the classification of AME as a single disorder. More... »

PAGES

17-23

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf03343803

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf03343803

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031380297

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11227727


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49 schema:description The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an inherited form of hypertension. This disorder results from an inability of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-OHSD) to inactivate cortisol to cortisone. The diagnosis of AME is usually based on an elevated ratio of cortisol to cortisone reduced metabolites in the urine [tetrahydrocortisol plus allotetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone (THF+alloTHF/THE)]. The principal site of "A" ring reduction is the liver, but AME arises from mutation in the gene encoding 11beta-OHSD2 in the kidney. We used a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method to measure the urinary free cortisol (UFF) and free cortisone (UFE) in 24 patients affected by the two variants of AME [19 with the classical form (type I) and 5 with the mild form called AME type II] in order to provide a more reproducible in vivo measure of the renal enzymatic activity. Type I patients were divided into two groups: children under 12 and adults. UFF levels (microg/24 h) did not differ between under-12 controls and AME type I children (mean+/-SD, 9+/-4 and 15+/-12, respectively), but was significantly higher in affected adults compared to controls: (62+/-32 vs 29+/-8, p<0.01). No differences were found between adult controls and AME type II patients (29+/-8 and 37.0+/-14, respectively). UFE was undetectable in 63% of AME type I and significantly lower in AME type II (p<0.05). As a consequence UFF/UFE ratio was significantly higher in AME type I patients both in children and adults compared to controls (AME children: 5.1+/-2.6; normal children: 0.43+/-0.2, p<0.01; AME type I adults: 17.7+/-19.6; normal adults: 0.54+/-0.3 p<0.01). For AME type II, where UFE was detectable in every case, the UFF/UFE ratio was significantly higher than adult controls (2.75+/-1.5 vs 0.54+/-0.3, p<0.01). In conclusion, our study indicates that UFE and UFF/UFE ratio are sensitive markers of 11beta-OHSD2, directly reflecting the activity of the renal isozyme and readily identifying patients with AME. The presence of an altered UFF/UFE ratio in both types of AME, although with different degree of severity, calls for re-evaluation and the classification of AME as a single disorder.
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