Skewed X Inactivation of the Normal Allele in Fully Mutated Female Carriers Determines the Levels of FMRP in Blood and ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

2005-09

AUTHORS

Raquel Martínez, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Antonio Jiménez, Miguel Lucas, Carmen Vega, Inmaculada Ramos, Francisco Sobrino, Elizabeth Pintado

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The variable phenotype in female carriers of a full mutation is explained in part by non-random X-chromosome inactivation. The molecular diagnosis of fragile X syndrome is based on the resolution of the number of CGG triplet repeats and the methylation status of a critical CpG in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) promoter. Neighboring CpGs in the FMR1 promoter are supposed to be equally methylated or unmethylated. METHOD: Southern blot analysis was performed with double digestion, either with EcoRI/EagI or with HindIII/SacII. The EagI restriction site was studied by sequencing. The fragile X encoded protein (FMRP) was detected in white blood cells by Western blot. The fragile X phenotype was evaluated by specific clinical examinations. RESULTS: Within one family we found three female carriers of a full mutation and a different degree of methylation of the normal allele that correlated with the levels of FMRP in blood and the fragile X phenotype. Complete methylation at the EagI CpG target (but partially methylated SacII CpG site) was associated with extremely skewed X inactivation (confirmed by analysis of the methylation status at the PGK locus), undetectable FMRP in blood, and a male-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: In fully mutated female carriers the methylation status at the EagI restriction site correlates with the levels of FMRP in blood and the fragile X phenotype. Neighboring CpG sequences in the FMR1 promoter can be differentially methylated, which should be taken into consideration for molecular diagnosis. More... »

PAGES

157-162

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf03260084

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf03260084

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033537432

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16271017


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41 schema:description BACKGROUND: The variable phenotype in female carriers of a full mutation is explained in part by non-random X-chromosome inactivation. The molecular diagnosis of fragile X syndrome is based on the resolution of the number of CGG triplet repeats and the methylation status of a critical CpG in the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) promoter. Neighboring CpGs in the FMR1 promoter are supposed to be equally methylated or unmethylated. METHOD: Southern blot analysis was performed with double digestion, either with EcoRI/EagI or with HindIII/SacII. The EagI restriction site was studied by sequencing. The fragile X encoded protein (FMRP) was detected in white blood cells by Western blot. The fragile X phenotype was evaluated by specific clinical examinations. RESULTS: Within one family we found three female carriers of a full mutation and a different degree of methylation of the normal allele that correlated with the levels of FMRP in blood and the fragile X phenotype. Complete methylation at the EagI CpG target (but partially methylated SacII CpG site) was associated with extremely skewed X inactivation (confirmed by analysis of the methylation status at the PGK locus), undetectable FMRP in blood, and a male-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: In fully mutated female carriers the methylation status at the EagI restriction site correlates with the levels of FMRP in blood and the fragile X phenotype. Neighboring CpG sequences in the FMR1 promoter can be differentially methylated, which should be taken into consideration for molecular diagnosis.
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