Die Postulate von Koch und die Luftverschmutzung View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1984-12-01

AUTHORS

F. T. Last, D. Fowler, P. H. Freer-Smith

ABSTRACT

In 1891, the pathologistKoch postulated that injecting a pathogen into a plant (an animal, etc.) must result in damage identical to that caused by the same one under field conditions. This postulate has to be valid also for research on all aspects of air pollution and its “environment”: air pollutants applied to healthy plants during an experiment must cause the same damage as they do under field conditions.This postulate, however, has not been considered in research concerning air pollution and its effects on plants. Therefore, in part contradictory results may be found today in the voluminous literature on this problem. On the basis of visible symptoms of injury to plants it has been possible to establish grades of sensitivity of tree species to air pollution. Daily and annual mean values of air pollutants for certain areas were obtained; foliar analyses aimed at finding out about particular air-borne harmful substances helped—but regardless of all, there is no clear perception about the nature of air pollution.The authors presents a comprehensive literature review. At the same time they also point out that the “air pollution environment” is a many-layered system which is dependent on other facts, too, especially in regard to potential injuries to plants. The major harmful substances and their chemical compounds are discussed including the sphere of the plant cell, and biochemical questions.Research now not only has to consider parts of the problem (e. g. effects of mean levels of a certain damaging agent), but must rather focus on the problem in its entirety with all its ramifications. It is not sufficient to investigate just the physiological effects of air pollutants on tree growth; the effort to perceive the “air pollution environment”, too, has to be included as being equally important. More... »

PAGES

28-48

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02744213

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02744213

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042857860


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/07", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0705", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Forestry Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Last", 
        "givenName": "F. T.", 
        "id": "sg:person.016401040557.87", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016401040557.87"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Fowler", 
        "givenName": "D.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0702241330.40", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0702241330.40"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, Lancaster, Lancs., England", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9835.7", 
          "name": [
            "University of Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, Lancaster, Lancs., England"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Freer-Smith", 
        "givenName": "P. H.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01127466151.31", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01127466151.31"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/225476a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029994016", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/225476a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4613-9388-7_2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031981624", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9388-7_2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-7139-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046249849", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7139-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-6983-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026995836", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6983-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/297383a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008673315", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/297383a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00010371", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010153121", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00010371"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/302241a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046841606", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/302241a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-66544-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025050364", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-66544-8"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/280049a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053688507", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/280049a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02741849", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033558121", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02741849"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1984-12-01", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1984-12-01", 
    "description": "In 1891, the pathologistKoch postulated that injecting a pathogen into a plant (an animal, etc.) must result in damage identical to that caused by the same one under field conditions. This postulate has to be valid also for research on all aspects of air pollution and its \u201cenvironment\u201d: air pollutants applied to healthy plants during an experiment must cause the same damage as they do under field conditions.This postulate, however, has not been considered in research concerning air pollution and its effects on plants. Therefore, in part contradictory results may be found today in the voluminous literature on this problem. On the basis of visible symptoms of injury to plants it has been possible to establish grades of sensitivity of tree species to air pollution. Daily and annual mean values of air pollutants for certain areas were obtained; foliar analyses aimed at finding out about particular air-borne harmful substances helped\u2014but regardless of all, there is no clear perception about the nature of air pollution.The authors presents a comprehensive literature review. At the same time they also point out that the \u201cair pollution environment\u201d is a many-layered system which is dependent on other facts, too, especially in regard to potential injuries to plants. The major harmful substances and their chemical compounds are discussed including the sphere of the plant cell, and biochemical questions.Research now not only has to consider parts of the problem (e. g. effects of mean levels of a certain damaging agent), but must rather focus on the problem in its entirety with all its ramifications. It is not sufficient to investigate just the physiological effects of air pollutants on tree growth; the effort to perceive the \u201cair pollution environment\u201d, too, has to be included as being equally important.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02744213", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1040667", 
        "issn": [
          "1612-4669", 
          "1612-4677"
        ], 
        "name": "European Journal of Forest Research", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "1", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "103"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "air pollution environment", 
      "field conditions", 
      "tree species", 
      "foliar analysis", 
      "tree growth", 
      "healthy plants", 
      "plants", 
      "visible symptoms", 
      "pollution environment", 
      "plant cells", 
      "pollution", 
      "grade of sensitivity", 
      "air pollution", 
      "harmful substances", 
      "potential injury", 
      "same damage", 
      "injury", 
      "physiological effects", 
      "air pollutants", 
      "certain areas", 
      "comprehensive literature review", 
      "chemical compounds", 
      "pathogens", 
      "contradictory results", 
      "clear perception", 
      "literature review", 
      "environment", 
      "species", 
      "damage", 
      "symptoms", 
      "mean value", 
      "biochemical questions", 
      "growth", 
      "postulates", 
      "conditions", 
      "pollutants", 
      "area", 
      "substances", 
      "research", 
      "effect", 
      "voluminous literature", 
      "grade", 
      "review", 
      "cells", 
      "experiments", 
      "same time", 
      "sensitivity", 
      "efforts", 
      "regard", 
      "literature", 
      "basis", 
      "values", 
      "perception", 
      "authors", 
      "time", 
      "system", 
      "part", 
      "ramifications", 
      "aspects", 
      "results", 
      "today", 
      "problem", 
      "analysis", 
      "compounds", 
      "annual mean values", 
      "questions", 
      "entirety", 
      "fact", 
      "nature", 
      "und", 
      "layered system", 
      "sphere", 
      "pathologistKoch", 
      "part contradictory results", 
      "particular air-borne harmful substances", 
      "air-borne harmful substances", 
      "major harmful substances", 
      "Postulate von Koch und", 
      "von Koch und", 
      "Koch und", 
      "Luftverschmutzung"
    ], 
    "name": "Die Postulate von Koch und die Luftverschmutzung", 
    "pagination": "28-48", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1042857860"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/bf02744213"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02744213", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042857860"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:02", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_164.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02744213"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02744213'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02744213'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02744213'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02744213'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

196 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      116 URIs      98 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02744213 schema:about anzsrc-for:07
2 anzsrc-for:0705
3 schema:author Ne73067d1479b43c8b60801ad2593cd39
4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4613-9388-7_2
5 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-66544-8
6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-6983-4
7 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-7139-4
8 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00010371
9 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02741849
10 sg:pub.10.1038/225476a0
11 sg:pub.10.1038/280049a0
12 sg:pub.10.1038/297383a0
13 sg:pub.10.1038/302241a0
14 schema:datePublished 1984-12-01
15 schema:datePublishedReg 1984-12-01
16 schema:description In 1891, the pathologistKoch postulated that injecting a pathogen into a plant (an animal, etc.) must result in damage identical to that caused by the same one under field conditions. This postulate has to be valid also for research on all aspects of air pollution and its “environment”: air pollutants applied to healthy plants during an experiment must cause the same damage as they do under field conditions.This postulate, however, has not been considered in research concerning air pollution and its effects on plants. Therefore, in part contradictory results may be found today in the voluminous literature on this problem. On the basis of visible symptoms of injury to plants it has been possible to establish grades of sensitivity of tree species to air pollution. Daily and annual mean values of air pollutants for certain areas were obtained; foliar analyses aimed at finding out about particular air-borne harmful substances helped—but regardless of all, there is no clear perception about the nature of air pollution.The authors presents a comprehensive literature review. At the same time they also point out that the “air pollution environment” is a many-layered system which is dependent on other facts, too, especially in regard to potential injuries to plants. The major harmful substances and their chemical compounds are discussed including the sphere of the plant cell, and biochemical questions.Research now not only has to consider parts of the problem (e. g. effects of mean levels of a certain damaging agent), but must rather focus on the problem in its entirety with all its ramifications. It is not sufficient to investigate just the physiological effects of air pollutants on tree growth; the effort to perceive the “air pollution environment”, too, has to be included as being equally important.
17 schema:genre article
18 schema:inLanguage en
19 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
20 schema:isPartOf N26706a9c938343698f4268f3ba8a63a9
21 N554cdb70c5f34b079905430406cacf76
22 sg:journal.1040667
23 schema:keywords Koch und
24 Luftverschmutzung
25 Postulate von Koch und
26 air pollutants
27 air pollution
28 air pollution environment
29 air-borne harmful substances
30 analysis
31 annual mean values
32 area
33 aspects
34 authors
35 basis
36 biochemical questions
37 cells
38 certain areas
39 chemical compounds
40 clear perception
41 compounds
42 comprehensive literature review
43 conditions
44 contradictory results
45 damage
46 effect
47 efforts
48 entirety
49 environment
50 experiments
51 fact
52 field conditions
53 foliar analysis
54 grade
55 grade of sensitivity
56 growth
57 harmful substances
58 healthy plants
59 injury
60 layered system
61 literature
62 literature review
63 major harmful substances
64 mean value
65 nature
66 part
67 part contradictory results
68 particular air-borne harmful substances
69 pathogens
70 pathologistKoch
71 perception
72 physiological effects
73 plant cells
74 plants
75 pollutants
76 pollution
77 pollution environment
78 postulates
79 potential injury
80 problem
81 questions
82 ramifications
83 regard
84 research
85 results
86 review
87 same damage
88 same time
89 sensitivity
90 species
91 sphere
92 substances
93 symptoms
94 system
95 time
96 today
97 tree growth
98 tree species
99 und
100 values
101 visible symptoms
102 voluminous literature
103 von Koch und
104 schema:name Die Postulate von Koch und die Luftverschmutzung
105 schema:pagination 28-48
106 schema:productId N8f3f231b30a7494286fd7bf3aa2bc68d
107 Nd696516c9e864193ac564cf3b5904a85
108 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042857860
109 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02744213
110 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:02
111 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
112 schema:sdPublisher N6396f4a78a0440868007ab88cafb30b2
113 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02744213
114 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
115 sgo:sdDataset articles
116 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
117 N02d62e69e948415983ec9ff4a6c0aa77 rdf:first sg:person.0702241330.40
118 rdf:rest N684cb48cc0354f4cbc9e06c06f618048
119 N26706a9c938343698f4268f3ba8a63a9 schema:volumeNumber 103
120 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
121 N554cdb70c5f34b079905430406cacf76 schema:issueNumber 1
122 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
123 N6396f4a78a0440868007ab88cafb30b2 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
124 rdf:type schema:Organization
125 N684cb48cc0354f4cbc9e06c06f618048 rdf:first sg:person.01127466151.31
126 rdf:rest rdf:nil
127 N8f3f231b30a7494286fd7bf3aa2bc68d schema:name dimensions_id
128 schema:value pub.1042857860
129 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
130 Nd696516c9e864193ac564cf3b5904a85 schema:name doi
131 schema:value 10.1007/bf02744213
132 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
133 Ne73067d1479b43c8b60801ad2593cd39 rdf:first sg:person.016401040557.87
134 rdf:rest N02d62e69e948415983ec9ff4a6c0aa77
135 anzsrc-for:07 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
136 schema:name Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
138 anzsrc-for:0705 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
139 schema:name Forestry Sciences
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 sg:journal.1040667 schema:issn 1612-4669
142 1612-4677
143 schema:name European Journal of Forest Research
144 schema:publisher Springer Nature
145 rdf:type schema:Periodical
146 sg:person.01127466151.31 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.9835.7
147 schema:familyName Freer-Smith
148 schema:givenName P. H.
149 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01127466151.31
150 rdf:type schema:Person
151 sg:person.016401040557.87 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
152 schema:familyName Last
153 schema:givenName F. T.
154 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016401040557.87
155 rdf:type schema:Person
156 sg:person.0702241330.40 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
157 schema:familyName Fowler
158 schema:givenName D.
159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0702241330.40
160 rdf:type schema:Person
161 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4613-9388-7_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031981624
162 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9388-7_2
163 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
164 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-66544-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025050364
165 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-66544-8
166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
167 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-6983-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026995836
168 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6983-4
169 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
170 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-7139-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046249849
171 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7139-4
172 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
173 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00010371 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010153121
174 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00010371
175 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
176 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02741849 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033558121
177 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02741849
178 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
179 sg:pub.10.1038/225476a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029994016
180 https://doi.org/10.1038/225476a0
181 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
182 sg:pub.10.1038/280049a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053688507
183 https://doi.org/10.1038/280049a0
184 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
185 sg:pub.10.1038/297383a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008673315
186 https://doi.org/10.1038/297383a0
187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
188 sg:pub.10.1038/302241a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046841606
189 https://doi.org/10.1038/302241a0
190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
191 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland
192 schema:name Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, nr. Penicuik, EH26 OQB, Midlothian, Scotland
193 rdf:type schema:Organization
194 grid-institutes:grid.9835.7 schema:alternateName University of Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, Lancaster, Lancs., England
195 schema:name University of Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, Lancaster, Lancs., England
196 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...