Unreasonable implications of reasonable idiotypic network assumptions View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1989-05

AUTHORS

Rob J. De Boer, Pauline Hogeweg

ABSTRACT

We first analyse a simple symmetric model of the idiotypic network. In the model idiotypic interactions regulate B cell proliferation. Three non-idiotypic processes are incorporated: (1) influx of newborn cells; (2) turnover of cells: (3) antigen. Antigen also regulates proliferation.A model of 2 B cell populations has 3 stable equilibria: one virgin, two immune. The twodimensional system thus remembers antigens, i.e. accounts for immunity. By contrast, if an idiotypic clone proliferates (in response to antigen), its anti-idiotypic partner is unable to control this. Symmetric idiotypic networks thus fail to account for proliferation regulation.In high-D networks we run into two problems. Firstly, if the network accounts for memory, idiotypic activation always propagates very deeply into the network. This is very unrealistic, but is an implication of the “realistic” assumption that it should be easier to activate all cells of a small virgin clone than to maintain the activation of all cells of a large (immune) clone. Secondly, graph theory teaches us that if the (random) network connectance exceeds a threshold level of one interaction per clone, most clones are interconnected. We show that this theory is also applicable to immune networks based on complementary matching idiotypes. The combination of the first “percolation” result with the “interconnectancr” result means that the first stimulation of the network with antigen should eventually affect most of the clones. We think this is unreasonable.Another threshold property of the network connectivity is the existence of a virgin state. A gradual increase in network connectance eliminates the virgin state and thus causes an abrupt change in network behaviour. In contrast to weakly connected systems, highly connected networks display autonomous activity and are unresponsive to external antigens. Similar differences between neonatal and adult networks have been described by experimentalists.The robustness of these results is tested with a network in which idiotypic inactivation of a clone occurs more generally than activation. Such “long-range inhibition” is known to promote pattern formation. However, in our model it fails to reduce the percolation, and additionally, generates semi-chaotic behaviour. In our network, the inhibition of a clone that is inhibiting can alter this clone into a clone that is activating. Hence “long-range inhibition” implies “long-range activation”, and idiotypic activation fails to remain localized.We next complicate this model by incorporating antibody production. Although this “antibody” model statically accounts for the same set of equilibrium points, it dynamically fails to account for state switching (i.e. memory). The switching behaviour is disturbed by the autonomous slow decay of the (long-lived) antibodies. After antigenic triggering the system now performs complex cyclic behaviour. Finally, it is suggested that (idiotypic) formation of antibody complexes can play only a secondary role in the network.In conclusion, our results cast doubt on the functional role of a profound idiotypic network. The network fails to account for proliferation regulation, and if it accounts for memory phenomena, it “explodes” upon the first encounter with antigen due to extensive percolation. More... »

PAGES

381-408

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02460115

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02460115

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017644408

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2730971


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