Effect of soil drying on growth, biomass allocation and leaf gas exchange of two annual grass species View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1996-03

AUTHORS

Tibor Kalapos, Riki van den Boogaard, Hans Lambers

ABSTRACT

Influence of short-term water stress on plant growth and leaf gas exchange was studied simultaneously in a growth chamber experiment using two annual grass species differing in photosynthetic pathway type, plant architecture and phenology:Triticum aestivum L. cv. Katya-A-1 (C3, a drought resistant wheat cultivar of erect growth) andTragus racemosus (L.) All. (C4, a prostrate weed of warm semiarid areas). At the leaf level, gas exchange rates declined with decreasing soil water potential for both species in such a way that instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, mmol CO2 assimilated per mol H2O transpired) increased. At adequate water supply, the C4 grass showed much lower stomatal conductance and higher PWUE than the C3 species, but this difference disappeared at severe water stress when leaf gas exchange rates were similarly reduced for both species. However, by using soil water more sparingly, the C4 species was able to assimilate under non-stressful conditions for a longer time than the C3 wheat did. At the whole-plant level, decreasing water availability substantially reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) ofT. aestivum, while biomass partitioning changed in favour of root growth, so that the plant could exploit the limiting water resource more efficiently. The change in partitioning preceded the overall reduction of RGR and it was associated with increased biomass allocation to roots and less to leaves, as well as with a decrease in specific leaf area. Water saving byT. racemosus sufficiently postponed water stress effects on plant growth occurring only as a moderate reduction in leaf area enlargement. For unstressed vegetative plants, relative growth rate of the C4T. racemosus was only slightly higher than that of the C3T. aestivum, though it was achieved at a much lower water cost. The lack of difference in RGR was probably due to growth conditions being relatively suboptimal for the C4 plant and also to a relatively large investment in stem tissues by the C4T. racemosus. Only 10% of the plant biomass was allocated to roots in the C4 species while this was more than 30% for the C3 wheat cultivar. These results emphasize the importance of water saving and high WUE of C4 plants in maintaining growth under moderate water stress in comparison with C3 species. More... »

PAGES

137-149

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1981-12. Some relationships between the biochemistry of photosynthesis and the gas exchange of leaves in PLANTA
  • 1982-01. A correlation between photosynthetic temperature adaptation and seasonal phenology patterns in the shortgrass prairie in OECOLOGIA
  • 1979-10. Solute regulation and growth by roots and shoots of water-stressed maize plants in PLANTA
  • 1993-12. Differences in developmental plasticity and growth rate among drought-resistant and susceptible cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) in PLANT AND SOIL
  • 1989-05. Using growth analysis to interpret competition between a C3 and a C4 annual under ambient and elevated CO2 in OECOLOGIA
  • 1980-01. Distribution of biomass of species differing in photosynthetic pathway along an altitudinal transect in southeastern wyoming grassland in OECOLOGIA
  • 1981-03. Relationships between growth, photosynthesis and competitive interactions for a C3 and C4 plant in OECOLOGIA
  • 1976. Ecophysiology of C4 Grasses in WATER AND PLANT LIFE
  • 1982. Physiological Responses to Moderate Water Stress in PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT ECOLOGY II
  • 1977-12. Carbon balance, productivity, and water use of cold-winter desert shrub communities dominated by C3 and C4 species in OECOLOGIA
  • 1987-05. Biomass production and nitrate metabolism of Atriplex hortensis L. (C3 plant) and Amaranthus retroflexus L. (C4 plant) in cultures at different levels of nitrogen supply in OECOLOGIA
  • 1982. Functional Significance of Different Pathways of CO2 Fixation in Photosynthesis in PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT ECOLOGY II
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Plant and Soil

    ISSUE

    1

    VOLUME

    185

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02257570

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02257570

    DIMENSIONS

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    40 schema:description Influence of short-term water stress on plant growth and leaf gas exchange was studied simultaneously in a growth chamber experiment using two annual grass species differing in photosynthetic pathway type, plant architecture and phenology:Triticum aestivum L. cv. Katya-A-1 (C3, a drought resistant wheat cultivar of erect growth) andTragus racemosus (L.) All. (C4, a prostrate weed of warm semiarid areas). At the leaf level, gas exchange rates declined with decreasing soil water potential for both species in such a way that instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, mmol CO2 assimilated per mol H2O transpired) increased. At adequate water supply, the C4 grass showed much lower stomatal conductance and higher PWUE than the C3 species, but this difference disappeared at severe water stress when leaf gas exchange rates were similarly reduced for both species. However, by using soil water more sparingly, the C4 species was able to assimilate under non-stressful conditions for a longer time than the C3 wheat did. At the whole-plant level, decreasing water availability substantially reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) ofT. aestivum, while biomass partitioning changed in favour of root growth, so that the plant could exploit the limiting water resource more efficiently. The change in partitioning preceded the overall reduction of RGR and it was associated with increased biomass allocation to roots and less to leaves, as well as with a decrease in specific leaf area. Water saving byT. racemosus sufficiently postponed water stress effects on plant growth occurring only as a moderate reduction in leaf area enlargement. For unstressed vegetative plants, relative growth rate of the C4T. racemosus was only slightly higher than that of the C3T. aestivum, though it was achieved at a much lower water cost. The lack of difference in RGR was probably due to growth conditions being relatively suboptimal for the C4 plant and also to a relatively large investment in stem tissues by the C4T. racemosus. Only 10% of the plant biomass was allocated to roots in the C4 species while this was more than 30% for the C3 wheat cultivar. These results emphasize the importance of water saving and high WUE of C4 plants in maintaining growth under moderate water stress in comparison with C3 species.
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