Real-time onboard wind and windshear determination, part 2: Detection View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1995-01

AUTHORS

A. Miele, T. Wang, W. W. Melvin

ABSTRACT

This paper is concerned with windshear detection in connection with real-time wind identification (Ref. 1). It presents a comparative evaluation of two techniques, one based on the shear/downdraft factor and one based on the wind difference index. The comparison is done with reference to a particular microburst, that which caused the 1985 crash of Flight Delta 191 at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.The shear/downdraft factor has the merit of combining the effects of the shear and the downdraft into a single entity. However, its effectiveness is hampered by the fact that, in a real situation, the windshear is accompanied by free-stream turbulence, which tends to blur the resulting signal. In turn, this results in undesirable nuisance warnings if the magnitude of the shear factor due to free-stream turbulence is temporarily larger than that due to true windshear. Therefore, proper filtering is necessary prior to using the shear/downdraft factor in detection and guidance. One effective way for achieving this goal is to average the shear/downdraft factor over a specified time interval τ. The effect of τ on the average shear/downdraft factor is studied.Another effective way of offsetting the effects due to free-stream turbulence is to employ the wind difference index for detection and guidance. The wind difference index is computed over a specified time interval τ along the trajectory of the aircraft and is more stable than the shear/downdraft factor signal with respect to interference effects due to free-stream turbulence. Yet, the wind difference index can be determined using the same aerodynamics and inertial instrumentation necessary for determining the shear/downdraft factor. The effect of τ over the wind difference index is studied; it is found that, for τ relatively large, the wind difference index tends to a stable value, while the average shear/downdraft factor tends to vanish.It must be noted that any unfavorable shear (inner core of a downburst) is both preceded and followed by a favorable shear. The total wind velocity difference associated with the regions of favorable shear is exactly the same as that associated with the region of unfavorable shear. On the other hand, the shear/downdraft factor averaged over the regions of favorable shear is much smaller than that averaged over the region of unfavorable shear. As a consequence, the wind difference index is more useful than the average shear/downdraft factor in detecting a potentially dangerous windshear situation while the aircraft is still flying in the region of favorable shear. More... »

PAGES

39-63

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1992-10. Wind identification along a flight trajectory, part 1: 3D-kinematic approach in JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
  • 1995-01. Real-time onboard wind and windshear determination, part 1: Identification in JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
  • 1993-01. Wind identification along a flight trajectory, part 2: 2D-kinematic approach in JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
  • 1993-04. Wind identification along a flight trajectory, part 3: 2D-dynamic approach in JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02191734

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02191734

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040590995


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0915", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Interdisciplinary Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Miele", 
            "givenName": "A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015552732657.49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015552732657.49"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.21940.3e", 
              "name": [
                "Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Wang", 
            "givenName": "T.", 
            "id": "sg:person.014414570607.44", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014414570607.44"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Airworthiness and Performance Committee, Air Line Pilots Association, Washington, DC", 
              "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
              "name": [
                "Delta Airlines, Altanta, Georgia", 
                "Airworthiness and Performance Committee, Air Line Pilots Association, Washington, DC"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Melvin", 
            "givenName": "W. W.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011027201155.13", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011027201155.13"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02191733", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005914949", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191733"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00952821", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030043609", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00952821"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00939903", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018311680", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00939903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00940777", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023491243", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00940777"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1995-01", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1995-01-01", 
        "description": "This paper is concerned with windshear detection in connection with real-time wind identification (Ref. 1). It presents a comparative evaluation of two techniques, one based on the shear/downdraft factor and one based on the wind difference index. The comparison is done with reference to a particular microburst, that which caused the 1985 crash of Flight Delta 191 at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.The shear/downdraft factor has the merit of combining the effects of the shear and the downdraft into a single entity. However, its effectiveness is hampered by the fact that, in a real situation, the windshear is accompanied by free-stream turbulence, which tends to blur the resulting signal. In turn, this results in undesirable nuisance warnings if the magnitude of the shear factor due to free-stream turbulence is temporarily larger than that due to true windshear. Therefore, proper filtering is necessary prior to using the shear/downdraft factor in detection and guidance. One effective way for achieving this goal is to average the shear/downdraft factor over a specified time interval \u03c4. The effect of \u03c4 on the average shear/downdraft factor is studied.Another effective way of offsetting the effects due to free-stream turbulence is to employ the wind difference index for detection and guidance. The wind difference index is computed over a specified time interval \u03c4 along the trajectory of the aircraft and is more stable than the shear/downdraft factor signal with respect to interference effects due to free-stream turbulence. Yet, the wind difference index can be determined using the same aerodynamics and inertial instrumentation necessary for determining the shear/downdraft factor. The effect of \u03c4 over the wind difference index is studied; it is found that, for \u03c4 relatively large, the wind difference index tends to a stable value, while the average shear/downdraft factor tends to vanish.It must be noted that any unfavorable shear (inner core of a downburst) is both preceded and followed by a favorable shear. The total wind velocity difference associated with the regions of favorable shear is exactly the same as that associated with the region of unfavorable shear. On the other hand, the shear/downdraft factor averaged over the regions of favorable shear is much smaller than that averaged over the region of unfavorable shear. As a consequence, the wind difference index is more useful than the average shear/downdraft factor in detecting a potentially dangerous windshear situation while the aircraft is still flying in the region of favorable shear.", 
        "genre": "article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02191734", 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1044187", 
            "issn": [
              "0022-3239", 
              "1573-2878"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications", 
            "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "84"
          }
        ], 
        "keywords": [
          "free-stream turbulence", 
          "Flight Delta 191", 
          "Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport", 
          "wind velocity difference", 
          "wind identification", 
          "nuisance warnings", 
          "shear factor", 
          "windshear detection", 
          "turbulence", 
          "difference index", 
          "shear", 
          "proper filtering", 
          "velocity difference", 
          "effective way", 
          "aircraft", 
          "time interval \u03c4", 
          "windshear", 
          "stable value", 
          "aerodynamics", 
          "International Airport", 
          "real situation", 
          "downdrafts", 
          "signals", 
          "wind", 
          "Part 2", 
          "interval \u03c4", 
          "interference effects", 
          "filtering", 
          "microbursts", 
          "comparative evaluation", 
          "merits", 
          "detection", 
          "effect", 
          "instrumentation", 
          "technique", 
          "airports", 
          "region", 
          "magnitude", 
          "trajectories", 
          "effectiveness", 
          "guidance", 
          "warning", 
          "comparison", 
          "reference", 
          "values", 
          "way", 
          "respect", 
          "determination", 
          "crashes", 
          "situation", 
          "factors", 
          "index", 
          "turn", 
          "evaluation", 
          "connection", 
          "hand", 
          "single entity", 
          "goal", 
          "fact", 
          "identification", 
          "factor signals", 
          "differences", 
          "consequences", 
          "entities", 
          "paper"
        ], 
        "name": "Real-time onboard wind and windshear determination, part 2: Detection", 
        "pagination": "39-63", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1040590995"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/bf02191734"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191734", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040590995"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:21", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/article/article_263.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191734"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02191734'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02191734'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02191734'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf02191734'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    156 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      94 URIs      82 LITERALS      6 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02191734 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0915
    3 schema:author N317ce659ca744548a475ddc30104b83f
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00939903
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00940777
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00952821
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02191733
    8 schema:datePublished 1995-01
    9 schema:datePublishedReg 1995-01-01
    10 schema:description This paper is concerned with windshear detection in connection with real-time wind identification (Ref. 1). It presents a comparative evaluation of two techniques, one based on the shear/downdraft factor and one based on the wind difference index. The comparison is done with reference to a particular microburst, that which caused the 1985 crash of Flight Delta 191 at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.The shear/downdraft factor has the merit of combining the effects of the shear and the downdraft into a single entity. However, its effectiveness is hampered by the fact that, in a real situation, the windshear is accompanied by free-stream turbulence, which tends to blur the resulting signal. In turn, this results in undesirable nuisance warnings if the magnitude of the shear factor due to free-stream turbulence is temporarily larger than that due to true windshear. Therefore, proper filtering is necessary prior to using the shear/downdraft factor in detection and guidance. One effective way for achieving this goal is to average the shear/downdraft factor over a specified time interval τ. The effect of τ on the average shear/downdraft factor is studied.Another effective way of offsetting the effects due to free-stream turbulence is to employ the wind difference index for detection and guidance. The wind difference index is computed over a specified time interval τ along the trajectory of the aircraft and is more stable than the shear/downdraft factor signal with respect to interference effects due to free-stream turbulence. Yet, the wind difference index can be determined using the same aerodynamics and inertial instrumentation necessary for determining the shear/downdraft factor. The effect of τ over the wind difference index is studied; it is found that, for τ relatively large, the wind difference index tends to a stable value, while the average shear/downdraft factor tends to vanish.It must be noted that any unfavorable shear (inner core of a downburst) is both preceded and followed by a favorable shear. The total wind velocity difference associated with the regions of favorable shear is exactly the same as that associated with the region of unfavorable shear. On the other hand, the shear/downdraft factor averaged over the regions of favorable shear is much smaller than that averaged over the region of unfavorable shear. As a consequence, the wind difference index is more useful than the average shear/downdraft factor in detecting a potentially dangerous windshear situation while the aircraft is still flying in the region of favorable shear.
    11 schema:genre article
    12 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    13 schema:isPartOf N562d780563144bb3bb6495b1c9036704
    14 N852c597a4fd14df985462ceb0ce24e97
    15 sg:journal.1044187
    16 schema:keywords Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport
    17 Flight Delta 191
    18 International Airport
    19 Part 2
    20 aerodynamics
    21 aircraft
    22 airports
    23 comparative evaluation
    24 comparison
    25 connection
    26 consequences
    27 crashes
    28 detection
    29 determination
    30 difference index
    31 differences
    32 downdrafts
    33 effect
    34 effective way
    35 effectiveness
    36 entities
    37 evaluation
    38 fact
    39 factor signals
    40 factors
    41 filtering
    42 free-stream turbulence
    43 goal
    44 guidance
    45 hand
    46 identification
    47 index
    48 instrumentation
    49 interference effects
    50 interval τ
    51 magnitude
    52 merits
    53 microbursts
    54 nuisance warnings
    55 paper
    56 proper filtering
    57 real situation
    58 reference
    59 region
    60 respect
    61 shear
    62 shear factor
    63 signals
    64 single entity
    65 situation
    66 stable value
    67 technique
    68 time interval τ
    69 trajectories
    70 turbulence
    71 turn
    72 values
    73 velocity difference
    74 warning
    75 way
    76 wind
    77 wind identification
    78 wind velocity difference
    79 windshear
    80 windshear detection
    81 schema:name Real-time onboard wind and windshear determination, part 2: Detection
    82 schema:pagination 39-63
    83 schema:productId N6e502a114dbd4728bca82df88addeb68
    84 Nf7fcf44c1625455280dc20eae0859ecc
    85 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040590995
    86 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191734
    87 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:21
    88 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    89 schema:sdPublisher Nd4c0944530e24379bfe6d0f23be9aa06
    90 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191734
    91 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    92 sgo:sdDataset articles
    93 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    94 N317ce659ca744548a475ddc30104b83f rdf:first sg:person.015552732657.49
    95 rdf:rest Nf48345d7ac18415aa1d8c7077f422372
    96 N53ceb31d733b4b4fae67bd1e0c0a263a rdf:first sg:person.011027201155.13
    97 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    98 N562d780563144bb3bb6495b1c9036704 schema:volumeNumber 84
    99 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    100 N6e502a114dbd4728bca82df88addeb68 schema:name dimensions_id
    101 schema:value pub.1040590995
    102 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    103 N852c597a4fd14df985462ceb0ce24e97 schema:issueNumber 1
    104 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    105 Nd4c0944530e24379bfe6d0f23be9aa06 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    106 rdf:type schema:Organization
    107 Nf48345d7ac18415aa1d8c7077f422372 rdf:first sg:person.014414570607.44
    108 rdf:rest N53ceb31d733b4b4fae67bd1e0c0a263a
    109 Nf7fcf44c1625455280dc20eae0859ecc schema:name doi
    110 schema:value 10.1007/bf02191734
    111 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    112 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    113 schema:name Engineering
    114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    115 anzsrc-for:0915 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    116 schema:name Interdisciplinary Engineering
    117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    118 sg:journal.1044187 schema:issn 0022-3239
    119 1573-2878
    120 schema:name Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications
    121 schema:publisher Springer Nature
    122 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    123 sg:person.011027201155.13 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
    124 schema:familyName Melvin
    125 schema:givenName W. W.
    126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011027201155.13
    127 rdf:type schema:Person
    128 sg:person.014414570607.44 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    129 schema:familyName Wang
    130 schema:givenName T.
    131 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014414570607.44
    132 rdf:type schema:Person
    133 sg:person.015552732657.49 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e
    134 schema:familyName Miele
    135 schema:givenName A.
    136 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015552732657.49
    137 rdf:type schema:Person
    138 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00939903 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018311680
    139 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00939903
    140 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    141 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00940777 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023491243
    142 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00940777
    143 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    144 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00952821 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030043609
    145 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00952821
    146 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    147 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02191733 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005914949
    148 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02191733
    149 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    150 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Airworthiness and Performance Committee, Air Line Pilots Association, Washington, DC
    151 schema:name Airworthiness and Performance Committee, Air Line Pilots Association, Washington, DC
    152 Delta Airlines, Altanta, Georgia
    153 rdf:type schema:Organization
    154 grid-institutes:grid.21940.3e schema:alternateName Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas
    155 schema:name Aero-Astronautics Group, Rice University, Houston, Texas
    156 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...