The appearance of new structures and functions in proteins during evolution View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1975-03

AUTHORS

Emile Zuckerkandl

ABSTRACT

The likelihood of a de novo generation of classes of efficient proteins through neoformation of DNA, through modification of expressed DNA, and through modification of nonexpressed DNA is examined. So is the likelihood that newly formed inefficient enzymes be turned into efficient enzymes. The conclusions are that neither gene duplicates nor dormant genes represent promising materials for a de novo generation of protein classes, that (with exceptions) such generation is unlikely to have taken place in recent evolution, that new structural genes must nearly consistently derive from preexisting structural genes, and that new functions can be evolved only on the basis of old proteins. Conditions of protein evolution in prokaryotes suggest that the saltatory formation of protein classes is as unlikely in prokaryotes as in eukaryotes. Data on the history of a few protein classes are reviewed to illustrate the preceding inferences. The analysis leads to the hypothesis that most protein classes originated before the major elements of the translation apparatus of modern cells were fully evolved. If simple sequence DNA is turned into structural genes by evolution, this process (again with exceptions) is considered to have taken place only at that very remote period. A polyphyletic origin of proteins is thought to date back to the same era. It is proposed that the development of genic multiplicity and of marked structural and functional diversity of proteins may have come about in the earliest cells primarily through the independent generation of structurally different polymerases in different protocells, followed by cell conjugation and the subsequent use by enriched cells of supernumerary types of polymerase for evolving further functions. Functional growth, as it took place at early times, is briefly discussed as well as functional change. The foundations for new functional developments in old proteins are analyzed. In considering the evolutionary recovery of lost functions, aspects of cell differentiation and gene regulation are linked with the evolutionary picture. The distinction between eurygenic and stemogenic control of gene activity is used. Next to gene deletion, cell and tissue deletion is held to be an event of general evolutionary significance, through cell and tissue origination that presumably accompanies the restoration of a lost molecular function. More... »

PAGES

1-57

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1974-07. Stimulatory capacity of human T and B lymphocytes in the mixed leukocyte culture in NATURE
  • 1969-10. Rate of Fixation of Nucleotide Substitutions in Evolution in NATURE
  • 1974-11. Opossum Hb chain sequence and neutral mutation theory in NATURE
  • 1971-04. Reiteration and Clustering of DNA Sequences Complementary to Histone Messenger RNA in NATURE
  • 1967-11. Study of Microbial Evolution through Loss of Biosynthetic Functions: Establishment of “Defective” Mutants in NATURE
  • 1964-09. Relation of Protein Evolution to Tertiary Structure in NATURE
  • 1974-07. Chemical and biological evolution of a nucleotide-binding protein in NATURE
  • 1971-02. Structural Similarities between α-Lytic Protease of Myxobacter 495 and Elastase in NATURE
  • 1968-07. How Different are the DNAs from Related Animals? in NATURE
  • 1972. Chance in Evolution--Some Philosophical Remarks in MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 1974-09. Conservation of Shannon's redundancy for proteins in JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 1974-07. Topological comparison of adenyl kinase with other proteins in NATURE
  • 1976. Programs of Gene Action and Progressive Evolution in MOLECULAR ANTHROPOLOGY
  • 1965-05. THE EVOLUTION OF HEMOGLOBIN. in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
  • 1973-06. Eukaryote evolution: A view based on cytochromec sequence data in JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 1974-12. Location of repetitious DNA in the chromosomes of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) in CHROMOSOMA
  • 1970. Evolution by Gene Duplication in NONE
  • 1954-05. Vertebrates without Erythrocytes and Blood Pigment in NATURE
  • 1972-07. Amino-acid Sequence of Thermolysin in NATURE
  • 1971-09. Repetitive DNA sequences in Drosophila in CHROMOSOMA
  • 1970-03. Repeated sequences in the DNA of Drosophila and their localization in giant chromosomes in CHROMOSOMA
  • 1972-03. De novo origin of periodic proteins in JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 1973-08. Origin of the cell: Experiments and premises in THE SCIENCE OF NATURE
  • 1972-09. The possible conservation of genetic information in repetitious sequences of DNA in JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
  • 1971-09. Functional Organization of Genetic Material as a Product of Molecular Evolution in NATURE
  • 1961-03. Gene Evolution and the Hæmoglobins in NATURE
  • 1972-12. Evolution of Ribonuclease in Relation to Polypeptide Folding Mechanisms in NATURE
  • 1974-07. Three abundance classes in HeLa cell messenger RNA in NATURE
  • 1947-04. Heterochromatization as a change of chromosome cycle in JOURNAL OF GENETICS
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01732178

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01732178

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048126016

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/765485


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0604", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Genetics", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/06", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Biological Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Amino Acids", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Animals", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Biological Evolution", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA Nucleotidyltransferases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "DNA Replication", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Genes", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Humans", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Peptides", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Protein Biosynthesis", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Proteins", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Ribonucleases", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
            "name": "Transcription, Genetic", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Marine Biological Laboratory", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.144532.5", 
              "name": [
                "Marine Biological Laboratory, 02543, Woods Hole, Mass., USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zuckerkandl", 
            "givenName": "Emile", 
            "id": "sg:person.012200362544.69", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012200362544.69"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90569-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000325230"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334010", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000368887", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00334010"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(71)90214-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000466796"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-2019-7_10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000955935", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2019-7_10"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/250144a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001821709", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/250144a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653939", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002269434", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653939"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653939", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002269434", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653939"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60237-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002562268"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-211850-0.50014-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003205341"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(72)80012-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004726320"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006433795", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006433795", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90116-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006736296"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio230165a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006973566", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio230165a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio230165a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006973566", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio230165a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio230165a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006973566", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio230165a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(73)80030-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009423569"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-015566-1.50042-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009576718"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/2031350a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009604063", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/2031350a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653990", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010428151", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653990"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653990", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010428151", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653990"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/216456a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011017326", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/216456a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/250194a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013040231", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/250194a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6107(71)90019-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013151970"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/250199a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013152168", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/250199a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.5.1.51", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016099904"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90396-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016473967"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.12.3516", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017958268"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/240395a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019933270", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/240395a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01660247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019982951", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01660247"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01660247", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019982951", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01660247"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/189704a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020398660", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/189704a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(66)90236-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020560853"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(66)90236-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020560853"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90095-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021782572"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90003-8", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022034798"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(74)80516-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022176637"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00602509", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023753204", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00602509"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00602509", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023753204", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00602509"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(69)90094-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024503986"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(69)90094-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024503986"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.50.3.774", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024894824"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.54.6.1546", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025023176"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1230227", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027001224"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1230227", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027001224"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ge.04.120170.001403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027586194"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0303-2647(75)90067-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028768651"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0303-2647(75)90067-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028768651"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(65)90083-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028819868"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/173848a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029644577", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/173848a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/233118a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031763429", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/233118a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50017-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032138540"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90311-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032466008"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio229202a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033057587", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio229202a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio229202a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033057587", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio229202a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio229202a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033057587", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio229202a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/250142a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034161283", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/250142a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.42.070173.002351", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034933290"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90397-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036825178"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50009-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037388126"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90563-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038011871"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/qr9641800045", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038031645"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2911(08)60187-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038272269"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(65)80134-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039338171"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(75)80310-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040606398"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00326360", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042245875", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00326360"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/224149a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043724478", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/224149a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/252062a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043903439", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/252062a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90033-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044471503"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5193(74)80035-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044978673"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.56.1.177", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045174498"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0080455x00009711", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045660713"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.65.2.349", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046513083"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio238035a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047244593", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio238035a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio238035a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047244593", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio238035a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/newbio238035a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047244593", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio238035a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(73)90360-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047449479"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.6.1841", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048071159"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-8783-5_20", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048086410", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8783-5_20"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90140-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049096356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/219228a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049358780", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/219228a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/219228a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049358780", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/219228a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00284948", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049749649", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00284948"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90373-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050140908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02986099", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050496037", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02986099"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02986099", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050496037", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02986099"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(67)90051-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050987723"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(67)90051-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050987723"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(67)90286-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052063818"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01797453", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052787887", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01797453"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01797453", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052787887", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01797453"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300011459", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053774600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300011459", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053774600"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004765", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054023663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004765", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054023663"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00745a014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055187187"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00753a011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055187448"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0565-110", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056541863", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0565-110"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/281505", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058591628"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/282639", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058592762"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1086/407817", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058698868"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1951.016.01.014", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060403049"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.050", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404345"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.076", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404371"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.081", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404376"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.152.3720.363", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062488345"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.161.3841.529", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062495047"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.164.3881.788", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062497053"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.165.3891.349", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062497521"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.174.4015.1200", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062504002"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/2412448", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069920881"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.17s-0009", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071490626"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075950776", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075982499", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080343102", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080445036", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080485409", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1970.50.2.159", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080675908"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081000972", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081028312", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081069138", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081289875", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081546171", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1975-03", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1975-03-01", 
        "description": "The likelihood of a de novo generation of classes of efficient proteins through neoformation of DNA, through modification of expressed DNA, and through modification of nonexpressed DNA is examined. So is the likelihood that newly formed inefficient enzymes be turned into efficient enzymes. The conclusions are that neither gene duplicates nor dormant genes represent promising materials for a de novo generation of protein classes, that (with exceptions) such generation is unlikely to have taken place in recent evolution, that new structural genes must nearly consistently derive from preexisting structural genes, and that new functions can be evolved only on the basis of old proteins. Conditions of protein evolution in prokaryotes suggest that the saltatory formation of protein classes is as unlikely in prokaryotes as in eukaryotes. Data on the history of a few protein classes are reviewed to illustrate the preceding inferences. The analysis leads to the hypothesis that most protein classes originated before the major elements of the translation apparatus of modern cells were fully evolved. If simple sequence DNA is turned into structural genes by evolution, this process (again with exceptions) is considered to have taken place only at that very remote period. A polyphyletic origin of proteins is thought to date back to the same era. It is proposed that the development of genic multiplicity and of marked structural and functional diversity of proteins may have come about in the earliest cells primarily through the independent generation of structurally different polymerases in different protocells, followed by cell conjugation and the subsequent use by enriched cells of supernumerary types of polymerase for evolving further functions. Functional growth, as it took place at early times, is briefly discussed as well as functional change. The foundations for new functional developments in old proteins are analyzed. In considering the evolutionary recovery of lost functions, aspects of cell differentiation and gene regulation are linked with the evolutionary picture. The distinction between eurygenic and stemogenic control of gene activity is used. Next to gene deletion, cell and tissue deletion is held to be an event of general evolutionary significance, through cell and tissue origination that presumably accompanies the restoration of a lost molecular function.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01732178", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1016442", 
            "issn": [
              "0022-2844", 
              "1432-1432"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Molecular Evolution", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "1", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "7"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "The appearance of new structures and functions in proteins during evolution", 
        "pagination": "1-57", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "e543ac4da120b922f2faf55a9b884e45892fef5be894347d73752b7ca6e1a3be"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "pubmed_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "765485"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "nlm_unique_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "0360051"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/bf01732178"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1048126016"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01732178", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048126016"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:34", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000370_0000000370/records_46769_00000002.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01732178"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01732178'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01732178'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01732178'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01732178'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    446 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      144 URIs      34 LITERALS      22 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01732178 schema:about N06aa820de2d643d4b3bfdeaa6c87f2a7
    2 N0ec5cefe1b4b41748df3b7a0bac0898e
    3 N1ef4caeaec1749a9a642ead521813508
    4 N3d14459a0b0c4469829f192209aeb51b
    5 N5a0d71e3841c470c8cb5c4db5fdc3ef6
    6 N6559e139fa5e4d8db2725aaa8a9a4426
    7 N9ef4bb73338d4da995815ce3074b7420
    8 Na73f5602c2ce4ee2b160f8a0caad34cd
    9 Nc4e3746b01cb415cb532a054d887f4ba
    10 Ne77007b185944992bcfe2555a501aad1
    11 Neb799af8be404f6b8309f959bcb683a0
    12 Nf6c428b869424b41803ca526217e2754
    13 Nfcd97c450fa84594a718d4112194e267
    14 anzsrc-for:06
    15 anzsrc-for:0604
    16 schema:author N24c0798c4c3c4eb68ad1688f3e441430
    17 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-8783-5_20
    18 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-2019-7_10
    19 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3
    20 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00284948
    21 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00326360
    22 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334010
    23 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00602509
    24 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653939
    25 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653990
    26 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01660247
    27 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01797453
    28 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02986099
    29 sg:pub.10.1038/173848a0
    30 sg:pub.10.1038/189704a0
    31 sg:pub.10.1038/2031350a0
    32 sg:pub.10.1038/216456a0
    33 sg:pub.10.1038/219228a0
    34 sg:pub.10.1038/224149a0
    35 sg:pub.10.1038/233118a0
    36 sg:pub.10.1038/240395a0
    37 sg:pub.10.1038/250142a0
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/250144a0
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/250194a0
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/250199a0
    41 sg:pub.10.1038/252062a0
    42 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio229202a0
    43 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio230165a0
    44 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio238035a0
    45 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0565-110
    46 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075950776
    47 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075982499
    48 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080343102
    49 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080445036
    50 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080485409
    51 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081000972
    52 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081028312
    53 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081069138
    54 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081289875
    55 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081546171
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(67)90286-x
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(69)90094-2
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(66)90236-2
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(67)90051-5
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90095-3
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90140-5
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90373-6
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90397-9
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90116-1
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90311-1
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90396-2
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90563-3
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90569-4
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(73)90360-4
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(65)90083-4
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(71)90214-1
    72 https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6107(71)90019-8
    73 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90003-8
    74 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90033-6
    75 https://doi.org/10.1016/0303-2647(75)90067-2
    76 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-015566-1.50042-3
    77 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-211850-0.50014-8
    78 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50009-7
    79 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50017-6
    80 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(65)80134-6
    81 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5193(74)80035-4
    82 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2911(08)60187-3
    83 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60237-8
    84 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(72)80012-9
    85 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(73)80030-6
    86 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(74)80516-x
    87 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(75)80310-5
    88 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300011459
    89 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004765
    90 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0080455x00009711
    91 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00745a014
    92 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00753a011
    93 https://doi.org/10.1039/qr9641800045
    94 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1230227
    95 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.54.6.1546
    96 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.56.1.177
    97 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.65.2.349
    98 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.12.3516
    99 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.6.1841
    100 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.5.1.51
    101 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.50.3.774
    102 https://doi.org/10.1086/281505
    103 https://doi.org/10.1086/282639
    104 https://doi.org/10.1086/407817
    105 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1951.016.01.014
    106 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.050
    107 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.076
    108 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.081
    109 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.152.3720.363
    110 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.161.3841.529
    111 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.164.3881.788
    112 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.165.3891.349
    113 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.174.4015.1200
    114 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.42.070173.002351
    115 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ge.04.120170.001403
    116 https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1970.50.2.159
    117 https://doi.org/10.2307/2412448
    118 https://doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.17s-0009
    119 schema:datePublished 1975-03
    120 schema:datePublishedReg 1975-03-01
    121 schema:description The likelihood of a de novo generation of classes of efficient proteins through neoformation of DNA, through modification of expressed DNA, and through modification of nonexpressed DNA is examined. So is the likelihood that newly formed inefficient enzymes be turned into efficient enzymes. The conclusions are that neither gene duplicates nor dormant genes represent promising materials for a de novo generation of protein classes, that (with exceptions) such generation is unlikely to have taken place in recent evolution, that new structural genes must nearly consistently derive from preexisting structural genes, and that new functions can be evolved only on the basis of old proteins. Conditions of protein evolution in prokaryotes suggest that the saltatory formation of protein classes is as unlikely in prokaryotes as in eukaryotes. Data on the history of a few protein classes are reviewed to illustrate the preceding inferences. The analysis leads to the hypothesis that most protein classes originated before the major elements of the translation apparatus of modern cells were fully evolved. If simple sequence DNA is turned into structural genes by evolution, this process (again with exceptions) is considered to have taken place only at that very remote period. A polyphyletic origin of proteins is thought to date back to the same era. It is proposed that the development of genic multiplicity and of marked structural and functional diversity of proteins may have come about in the earliest cells primarily through the independent generation of structurally different polymerases in different protocells, followed by cell conjugation and the subsequent use by enriched cells of supernumerary types of polymerase for evolving further functions. Functional growth, as it took place at early times, is briefly discussed as well as functional change. The foundations for new functional developments in old proteins are analyzed. In considering the evolutionary recovery of lost functions, aspects of cell differentiation and gene regulation are linked with the evolutionary picture. The distinction between eurygenic and stemogenic control of gene activity is used. Next to gene deletion, cell and tissue deletion is held to be an event of general evolutionary significance, through cell and tissue origination that presumably accompanies the restoration of a lost molecular function.
    122 schema:genre research_article
    123 schema:inLanguage en
    124 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    125 schema:isPartOf N2320f1e5dff6425a8671367a57098d5f
    126 N699032ac001d4d758386d55a11cbc284
    127 sg:journal.1016442
    128 schema:name The appearance of new structures and functions in proteins during evolution
    129 schema:pagination 1-57
    130 schema:productId N26a0475d768142369fc2e2902a94c782
    131 N54df085df3ae4334bb8aa5b1c3ef770b
    132 N58dc4c102efe4cac98fb02f2073b4abf
    133 N6b0b0b14808841ceb0a6391cf79e74a1
    134 N76735a8ffeb54310aa8c72705a1e3a43
    135 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048126016
    136 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01732178
    137 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:34
    138 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    139 schema:sdPublisher Nd04662f650544d72b3faad8df25d3fe4
    140 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01732178
    141 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    142 sgo:sdDataset articles
    143 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    144 N06aa820de2d643d4b3bfdeaa6c87f2a7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    145 schema:name Amino Acids
    146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    147 N0ec5cefe1b4b41748df3b7a0bac0898e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    148 schema:name Animals
    149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    150 N1ef4caeaec1749a9a642ead521813508 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    151 schema:name DNA Nucleotidyltransferases
    152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    153 N2320f1e5dff6425a8671367a57098d5f schema:volumeNumber 7
    154 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    155 N24c0798c4c3c4eb68ad1688f3e441430 rdf:first sg:person.012200362544.69
    156 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    157 N26a0475d768142369fc2e2902a94c782 schema:name pubmed_id
    158 schema:value 765485
    159 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    160 N3d14459a0b0c4469829f192209aeb51b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    161 schema:name Humans
    162 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    163 N54df085df3ae4334bb8aa5b1c3ef770b schema:name readcube_id
    164 schema:value e543ac4da120b922f2faf55a9b884e45892fef5be894347d73752b7ca6e1a3be
    165 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    166 N58dc4c102efe4cac98fb02f2073b4abf schema:name nlm_unique_id
    167 schema:value 0360051
    168 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    169 N5a0d71e3841c470c8cb5c4db5fdc3ef6 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    170 schema:name Transcription, Genetic
    171 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    172 N6559e139fa5e4d8db2725aaa8a9a4426 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    173 schema:name Genes
    174 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    175 N699032ac001d4d758386d55a11cbc284 schema:issueNumber 1
    176 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    177 N6b0b0b14808841ceb0a6391cf79e74a1 schema:name doi
    178 schema:value 10.1007/bf01732178
    179 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    180 N76735a8ffeb54310aa8c72705a1e3a43 schema:name dimensions_id
    181 schema:value pub.1048126016
    182 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    183 N9ef4bb73338d4da995815ce3074b7420 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    184 schema:name Protein Biosynthesis
    185 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    186 Na73f5602c2ce4ee2b160f8a0caad34cd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    187 schema:name Proteins
    188 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    189 Nc4e3746b01cb415cb532a054d887f4ba schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    190 schema:name Ribonucleases
    191 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    192 Nd04662f650544d72b3faad8df25d3fe4 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    193 rdf:type schema:Organization
    194 Ne77007b185944992bcfe2555a501aad1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    195 schema:name Peptides
    196 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    197 Neb799af8be404f6b8309f959bcb683a0 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    198 schema:name Biological Evolution
    199 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    200 Nf6c428b869424b41803ca526217e2754 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    201 schema:name DNA
    202 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    203 Nfcd97c450fa84594a718d4112194e267 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
    204 schema:name DNA Replication
    205 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    206 anzsrc-for:06 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    207 schema:name Biological Sciences
    208 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    209 anzsrc-for:0604 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    210 schema:name Genetics
    211 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    212 sg:journal.1016442 schema:issn 0022-2844
    213 1432-1432
    214 schema:name Journal of Molecular Evolution
    215 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    216 sg:person.012200362544.69 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.144532.5
    217 schema:familyName Zuckerkandl
    218 schema:givenName Emile
    219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012200362544.69
    220 rdf:type schema:Person
    221 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-8783-5_20 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048086410
    222 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8783-5_20
    223 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    224 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4684-2019-7_10 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000955935
    225 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2019-7_10
    226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    227 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006433795
    228 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-86659-3
    229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    230 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00284948 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049749649
    231 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00284948
    232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    233 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00326360 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042245875
    234 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00326360
    235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    236 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334010 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000368887
    237 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00334010
    238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    239 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00602509 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023753204
    240 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00602509
    241 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    242 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653939 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002269434
    243 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653939
    244 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    245 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01653990 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010428151
    246 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01653990
    247 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    248 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01660247 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019982951
    249 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01660247
    250 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    251 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01797453 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052787887
    252 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01797453
    253 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    254 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02986099 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050496037
    255 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02986099
    256 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    257 sg:pub.10.1038/173848a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029644577
    258 https://doi.org/10.1038/173848a0
    259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    260 sg:pub.10.1038/189704a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020398660
    261 https://doi.org/10.1038/189704a0
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 sg:pub.10.1038/2031350a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009604063
    264 https://doi.org/10.1038/2031350a0
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 sg:pub.10.1038/216456a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011017326
    267 https://doi.org/10.1038/216456a0
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 sg:pub.10.1038/219228a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049358780
    270 https://doi.org/10.1038/219228a0
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 sg:pub.10.1038/224149a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043724478
    273 https://doi.org/10.1038/224149a0
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 sg:pub.10.1038/233118a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031763429
    276 https://doi.org/10.1038/233118a0
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 sg:pub.10.1038/240395a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019933270
    279 https://doi.org/10.1038/240395a0
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 sg:pub.10.1038/250142a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034161283
    282 https://doi.org/10.1038/250142a0
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 sg:pub.10.1038/250144a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001821709
    285 https://doi.org/10.1038/250144a0
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 sg:pub.10.1038/250194a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013040231
    288 https://doi.org/10.1038/250194a0
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 sg:pub.10.1038/250199a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013152168
    291 https://doi.org/10.1038/250199a0
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 sg:pub.10.1038/252062a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043903439
    294 https://doi.org/10.1038/252062a0
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio229202a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033057587
    297 https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio229202a0
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio230165a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006973566
    300 https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio230165a0
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 sg:pub.10.1038/newbio238035a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047244593
    303 https://doi.org/10.1038/newbio238035a0
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 sg:pub.10.1038/scientificamerican0565-110 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056541863
    306 https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0565-110
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075950776 schema:CreativeWork
    309 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075982499 schema:CreativeWork
    310 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080343102 schema:CreativeWork
    311 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080445036 schema:CreativeWork
    312 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080485409 schema:CreativeWork
    313 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081000972 schema:CreativeWork
    314 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081028312 schema:CreativeWork
    315 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081069138 schema:CreativeWork
    316 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081289875 schema:CreativeWork
    317 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1081546171 schema:CreativeWork
    318 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(67)90286-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052063818
    319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    320 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2728(69)90094-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024503986
    321 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    322 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(66)90236-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020560853
    323 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    324 https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-406x(67)90051-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050987723
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90095-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021782572
    327 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    328 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(69)90140-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049096356
    329 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    330 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90373-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050140908
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(70)90397-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036825178
    333 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    334 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90116-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006736296
    335 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    336 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90311-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032466008
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(71)90396-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016473967
    339 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    340 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90563-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038011871
    341 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    342 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(72)90569-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000325230
    343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    344 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2836(73)90360-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047449479
    345 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    346 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(65)90083-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028819868
    347 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    348 https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(71)90214-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000466796
    349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    350 https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6107(71)90019-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013151970
    351 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    352 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90003-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022034798
    353 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    354 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(74)90033-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044471503
    355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    356 https://doi.org/10.1016/0303-2647(75)90067-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028768651
    357 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    358 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-015566-1.50042-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009576718
    359 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    360 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-211850-0.50014-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003205341
    361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    362 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50009-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037388126
    363 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    364 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4832-2734-4.50017-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032138540
    365 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    366 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2836(65)80134-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039338171
    367 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    368 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5193(74)80035-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044978673
    369 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    370 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2911(08)60187-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038272269
    371 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    372 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6603(08)60237-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002562268
    373 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    374 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(72)80012-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004726320
    375 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    376 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(73)80030-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009423569
    377 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    378 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(74)80516-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022176637
    379 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    380 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9084(75)80310-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040606398
    381 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    382 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016672300011459 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053774600
    383 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    384 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033583500004765 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054023663
    385 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    386 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0080455x00009711 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045660713
    387 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    388 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00745a014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055187187
    389 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    390 https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00753a011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055187448
    391 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    392 https://doi.org/10.1039/qr9641800045 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038031645
    393 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    394 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj1230227 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027001224
    395 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    396 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.54.6.1546 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025023176
    397 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    398 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.56.1.177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045174498
    399 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    400 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.65.2.349 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046513083
    401 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    402 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.12.3516 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017958268
    403 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    404 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.70.6.1841 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048071159
    405 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    406 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.5.1.51 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016099904
    407 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    408 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.50.3.774 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024894824
    409 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    410 https://doi.org/10.1086/281505 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058591628
    411 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    412 https://doi.org/10.1086/282639 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058592762
    413 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    414 https://doi.org/10.1086/407817 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058698868
    415 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    416 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1951.016.01.014 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060403049
    417 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    418 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404345
    419 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    420 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.076 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404371
    421 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    422 https://doi.org/10.1101/sqb.1974.038.01.081 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060404376
    423 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    424 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.152.3720.363 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062488345
    425 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    426 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.161.3841.529 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062495047
    427 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    428 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.164.3881.788 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062497053
    429 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    430 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.165.3891.349 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062497521
    431 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    432 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.174.4015.1200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062504002
    433 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    434 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.42.070173.002351 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034933290
    435 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    436 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ge.04.120170.001403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027586194
    437 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    438 https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1970.50.2.159 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080675908
    439 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    440 https://doi.org/10.2307/2412448 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069920881
    441 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    442 https://doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.17s-0009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1071490626
    443 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    444 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.144532.5 schema:alternateName Marine Biological Laboratory
    445 schema:name Marine Biological Laboratory, 02543, Woods Hole, Mass., USA
    446 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...