Microtox assay to determine the toxicity of degradation products from degradable plastics View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1993-04

AUTHORS

Kenneth E. Johnson, Anthony L. Pometto, L. Somasundaram, Joel Coats

ABSTRACT

Six types of starch-polyethylene degradable plastics were evaluated for the release of water-soluble toxic compounds under accelerated degradation conditions. A plastic strip (2.5×15.2 cm) was placed in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask with 100 ml of ASTM type I water with or without trace element solutions and shaken at 65°C and 110 rpm for 20 weeks in replicates of two. High temperature was used to accelerate the oxidative degradation of polyethylene. Plastic degradation was measured by loss of tensile strength, percentage elongation, strain energy, and weight-average molecular weight. The most rapid period of polyethylene thermal degradation was complete for most materials by day 28. Ten-milliliter aqueous samples were removed from each flask at days 1, 7, 28, 56, 84, and 140 (water volumes were maintained at 100 ml with fresh type I water), filtered through glass filters, then evaluated by using the Microtox Toxicity Analyzer (Microbics Corporation, Carlsbad, CA). No water-soluble toxic compounds were detected during the period of rapid film degradation. Toxicity was observed at day 28 for one film and at day 84 for all films, which could possibly correlate with the release of small oxidative compounds such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because of the sensitivity of this assay, positive results must be confirmed by otherin vitro studies. More... »

PAGES

111-116

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1991-12. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity with Microtox® in BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • 1981-07. Comparison of three microbial toxicity screening tests with the microtox test in BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • 1990-02. Application of the microtox system to assess the toxicity of pesticides and their hydrolysis metabolites in BULLETIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01418204

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01418204

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044410647


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0907", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Environmental Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Iowa State University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Johnson", 
            "givenName": "Kenneth E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.014456470717.65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014456470717.65"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Iowa State University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pometto", 
            "givenName": "Anthony L.", 
            "id": "sg:person.07660225167.01", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07660225167.01"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Iowa State University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Entomology, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Somasundaram", 
            "givenName": "L.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012140222017.87", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012140222017.87"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Iowa State University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Entomology, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Coats", 
            "givenName": "Joel", 
            "id": "sg:person.01172160523.54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01172160523.54"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.2540020307", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013012177"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719108052948", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014237532"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1976.070201210", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037562925"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01611091", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041174131", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01611091"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01611091", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041174131", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01611091"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01611091", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041174131", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01611091"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01700144", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044106860", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01700144"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01700144", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044106860", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01700144"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1970.150080505", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046880862"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01689508", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047252876", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01689508"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01689508", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047252876", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01689508"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01689508", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047252876", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01689508"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(87)90084-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053129236"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(87)90084-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053129236"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077097944", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077158473", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077211737", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1993-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1993-04-01", 
        "description": "Six types of starch-polyethylene degradable plastics were evaluated for the release of water-soluble toxic compounds under accelerated degradation conditions. A plastic strip (2.5\u00d715.2 cm) was placed in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask with 100 ml of ASTM type I water with or without trace element solutions and shaken at 65\u00b0C and 110 rpm for 20 weeks in replicates of two. High temperature was used to accelerate the oxidative degradation of polyethylene. Plastic degradation was measured by loss of tensile strength, percentage elongation, strain energy, and weight-average molecular weight. The most rapid period of polyethylene thermal degradation was complete for most materials by day 28. Ten-milliliter aqueous samples were removed from each flask at days 1, 7, 28, 56, 84, and 140 (water volumes were maintained at 100 ml with fresh type I water), filtered through glass filters, then evaluated by using the Microtox Toxicity Analyzer (Microbics Corporation, Carlsbad, CA). No water-soluble toxic compounds were detected during the period of rapid film degradation. Toxicity was observed at day 28 for one film and at day 84 for all films, which could possibly correlate with the release of small oxidative compounds such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because of the sensitivity of this assay, positive results must be confirmed by otherin vitro studies.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418204", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1297558", 
            "issn": [
              "1064-7546", 
              "1572-8919"
            ], 
            "name": "Journal of Polymers and the Environment", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "2", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "1"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "Microtox assay to determine the toxicity of degradation products from degradable plastics", 
        "pagination": "111-116", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "d38b4cdbf667d850ffed5d01230abc12652f551d8538e21d69a67bd7b7f12730"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/bf01418204"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1044410647"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01418204", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044410647"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-11T13:30", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000370_0000000370/records_46751_00000002.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01418204"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01418204'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01418204'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01418204'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01418204'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    116 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      38 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418204 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0907
    3 schema:author Ne4a83807ead64083a4bc3ec97958a97c
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf01611091
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01689508
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01700144
    7 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077097944
    8 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077158473
    9 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077211737
    10 https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1976.070201210
    11 https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1970.150080505
    12 https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.2540020307
    13 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(87)90084-x
    14 https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719108052948
    15 schema:datePublished 1993-04
    16 schema:datePublishedReg 1993-04-01
    17 schema:description Six types of starch-polyethylene degradable plastics were evaluated for the release of water-soluble toxic compounds under accelerated degradation conditions. A plastic strip (2.5×15.2 cm) was placed in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask with 100 ml of ASTM type I water with or without trace element solutions and shaken at 65°C and 110 rpm for 20 weeks in replicates of two. High temperature was used to accelerate the oxidative degradation of polyethylene. Plastic degradation was measured by loss of tensile strength, percentage elongation, strain energy, and weight-average molecular weight. The most rapid period of polyethylene thermal degradation was complete for most materials by day 28. Ten-milliliter aqueous samples were removed from each flask at days 1, 7, 28, 56, 84, and 140 (water volumes were maintained at 100 ml with fresh type I water), filtered through glass filters, then evaluated by using the Microtox Toxicity Analyzer (Microbics Corporation, Carlsbad, CA). No water-soluble toxic compounds were detected during the period of rapid film degradation. Toxicity was observed at day 28 for one film and at day 84 for all films, which could possibly correlate with the release of small oxidative compounds such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because of the sensitivity of this assay, positive results must be confirmed by otherin vitro studies.
    18 schema:genre research_article
    19 schema:inLanguage en
    20 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    21 schema:isPartOf N1dc83dec994947e99d9cb3c0da7caddd
    22 Ne8555bbc1ad3466d98953d3bc55e9bf6
    23 sg:journal.1297558
    24 schema:name Microtox assay to determine the toxicity of degradation products from degradable plastics
    25 schema:pagination 111-116
    26 schema:productId N53174842e4434dc6ac7e7121144d978d
    27 Nb961f61372ad4861ae5b9c1c6d5251fd
    28 Nbf6945d4fa954e29acebc00bcb98b91d
    29 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044410647
    30 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01418204
    31 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-11T13:30
    32 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    33 schema:sdPublisher N4c0cc7f39e2a42ca9a8aeaf1aa1cca05
    34 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01418204
    35 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    36 sgo:sdDataset articles
    37 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    38 N1dc83dec994947e99d9cb3c0da7caddd schema:issueNumber 2
    39 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    40 N4c0cc7f39e2a42ca9a8aeaf1aa1cca05 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    41 rdf:type schema:Organization
    42 N53174842e4434dc6ac7e7121144d978d schema:name dimensions_id
    43 schema:value pub.1044410647
    44 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    45 N7c4b8625820640c5a252df2065d3db63 rdf:first sg:person.01172160523.54
    46 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    47 N7dd385332a6b4294aee518d8adfc7578 rdf:first sg:person.07660225167.01
    48 rdf:rest Nfebd2b2cdfc3455ca43776c7db534546
    49 Nb961f61372ad4861ae5b9c1c6d5251fd schema:name readcube_id
    50 schema:value d38b4cdbf667d850ffed5d01230abc12652f551d8538e21d69a67bd7b7f12730
    51 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    52 Nbf6945d4fa954e29acebc00bcb98b91d schema:name doi
    53 schema:value 10.1007/bf01418204
    54 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    55 Ne4a83807ead64083a4bc3ec97958a97c rdf:first sg:person.014456470717.65
    56 rdf:rest N7dd385332a6b4294aee518d8adfc7578
    57 Ne8555bbc1ad3466d98953d3bc55e9bf6 schema:volumeNumber 1
    58 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    59 Nfebd2b2cdfc3455ca43776c7db534546 rdf:first sg:person.012140222017.87
    60 rdf:rest N7c4b8625820640c5a252df2065d3db63
    61 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    62 schema:name Engineering
    63 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    64 anzsrc-for:0907 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    65 schema:name Environmental Engineering
    66 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    67 sg:journal.1297558 schema:issn 1064-7546
    68 1572-8919
    69 schema:name Journal of Polymers and the Environment
    70 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    71 sg:person.01172160523.54 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30
    72 schema:familyName Coats
    73 schema:givenName Joel
    74 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01172160523.54
    75 rdf:type schema:Person
    76 sg:person.012140222017.87 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30
    77 schema:familyName Somasundaram
    78 schema:givenName L.
    79 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012140222017.87
    80 rdf:type schema:Person
    81 sg:person.014456470717.65 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30
    82 schema:familyName Johnson
    83 schema:givenName Kenneth E.
    84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014456470717.65
    85 rdf:type schema:Person
    86 sg:person.07660225167.01 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30
    87 schema:familyName Pometto
    88 schema:givenName Anthony L.
    89 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07660225167.01
    90 rdf:type schema:Person
    91 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01611091 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041174131
    92 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01611091
    93 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    94 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01689508 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047252876
    95 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01689508
    96 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    97 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01700144 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044106860
    98 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01700144
    99 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    100 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077097944 schema:CreativeWork
    101 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077158473 schema:CreativeWork
    102 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077211737 schema:CreativeWork
    103 https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1976.070201210 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037562925
    104 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    105 https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1970.150080505 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046880862
    106 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    107 https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.2540020307 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013012177
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(87)90084-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053129236
    110 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    111 https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719108052948 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014237532
    112 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    113 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.34421.30 schema:alternateName Iowa State University
    114 schema:name Department of Entomology, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa
    115 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, 50011, Ames, Iowa
    116 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...